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Issue No.06 - November/December (2008 vol.23)
pp: 86-c3
Robert R. Hoffman , Institute for Human and Machine Cognition
Cognitive-systems engineers study the cognitive work conducted in sociotechnical contexts and, from that understanding, provide guidance to software engineers. The previous essay in this department discussed how there can be a gap—the guidance from cognitive-systems engineers can inform design, but what software engineers actually need are designs. The gap has been successfully crossed in one direction, in projects in which cognitive-systems engineers expressed the requirements in a way that captured key functionalities and their rationale, thereby speaking to the software engineer's needs. This essay works in the other direction: providing systems engineers with an easy-to-use method—the Macrocognitive Modeling Procedure—that might enable them to ramp up their understanding of the cognitive work. The procedure involves creating and then validating models of domain practitioners' reasoning. The method is easy to use and can enable software engineers to ramp up their understanding of end users' cognitive work.
macrocognitive models, expert reasoning, work analysis, cognitive-systems engineering, weather forecasting
Robert R. Hoffman, "Influencing versus Informing Design, Part 2: Macrocognitive Modeling", IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol.23, no. 6, pp. 86-c3, November/December 2008, doi:10.1109/MIS.2008.105
1. R.R. Hoffman and S.V. Deal, "Influencing versus Informing Design, Part 1: A Gap Analysis," IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 23, no. 5, 2008, pp. 78–81.
2. G. Klein, B. Moon, and R.R. Hoffman, "Making Sense of Sensemaking 2: A Macrocognitive Model," IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 21, no. 5, 2006, pp. 88–92.
3. G. Klein et al., "Macrocognition," IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 18, no. 3, 2003, pp. 81–85.
4. B. Crandall, G. Klein, and R.R. Hoffman, Working Minds: A Practitioner's Guide to Cognitive Task Analysis, MIT Press, 2006.
5. K.J. Vicente, Cognitive Work Analysis: Toward Safe, Productive, and Healthy Computer-Based Work, Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999.
6. R.R. Hoffman et al., "Storm-LK: A Human-Centered Knowledge Model for Weather Forecasting," Proc. 45th Ann. Meeting Human Factors and Ergonomics Soc., Human Factors and Ergonomics Soc., 2001, p. 752.
7. R.R. Hoffman et al., "A Method for Eliciting, Preserving, and Sharing the Knowledge of Forecasters," Weather and Forecasting, vol. 21, 2006, pp. 416–428.
8. K. Duncker, "On Problem Solving," Psychological Monographs, vol. 58, no. 270, 1945, pp. 1–113.
9. A. Newell, "Duncker on Thinking: An Inquiry into Progress on Cognition," A Century of Psychology as a Science, S. Koch and D.E. Leary, eds., Oxford Univ. Press, 1985, pp. 392–419.
10. R.R. Hoffman and L. Militello, Perspectives on Cognitive Task Analysis: Historical Origins and Modern Communities of Practice, CRC Press, 2008.
11. J.G. Trafton and R.R. Hoffman, "Computer-Aided Visualization in Meteorology," Expertise out of Context, R.R. Hoffman, ed., Lawrence Erlbaum, 2007, pp. 337–357.
12. R.R. Hoffman, G. Trafton, and P. Roebber, Minding the Weather: How Expert Forecasters Think, MIT Press, to be published in 2009.
13. R.R. Hoffman et al., "Eliciting Knowledge from Experts: A Methodological Analysis," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 62, no. 2, 1995, pp. 129–158.
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