The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.06 - November/December (2008 vol.23)
pp: 42-48
Chengqing Zong , Chinese Academy of Sciences
Qingshi Gao , Beijing University of Science and Technology
Chinese researchers have been developing natural language technology ever since machine translation studies began in the 1950s. The field has experienced fruitful achievements but continues to face many challenges. This article briefly reviews the history of NLT development in China, summarizes the achievements, analyzes the problems, and introduces some national programs to support NLT R&D. This article is part of a special issue on AI in China.
natural language processing, natural language technology, human language technology, computational linguistics, Chinese language processing
Chengqing Zong, Qingshi Gao, "Chinese R&D in Natural Language Technology", IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol.23, no. 6, pp. 42-48, November/December 2008, doi:10.1109/MIS.2008.100
1. B. Manaris, "Natural Language Processing: A Human-Computer Interaction Perspective," Advances in Computers, vol. 47, 1998, pp. 2–68.
2. Z. Feng, Research on Machine Translation, China Translation and Publishing Corp., 2004 (in Chinese).
3. J.R. Pierce et al., Language and Machines—Computers in Translation and Linguistics, Automatic Language Processing Advocacy Committee (ALPAC) report, Nat'l Academy of Sciences, 1966;
4. Z. Dong, "Logical Semantics and Its Application in Machine Translation," China's Machine Translation, Y. Liu, ed., Knowledge Press, 1984, pp. 25–45 (in Chinese).
5. Z. Liu, "Overview of the English-Chinese Machine Translation System JFY-II," The Chinese Language, no. 3, 1981, pp. 216–220, and no. 4, 1981, pp. 279–285 (in Chinese).
6. Q. Gao and Z. Chen, "The Principle of Human-Like Machine Translation," J. Computer Research &Development, vol. 26, no. 2, 1989, pp. 1–8.
7. Q. Gao, X. Gao, and Y. Hu, "Semantic Language and Multi-Language MT Approach Based on SL," J. Computer Science &Technology, vol. 18, no. 6, 2003, pp. 848–852.
8. Z. Chen and Q. Gao, "Intelligent English-Chinese Machine Translation System IMT/EC," Sciences in China, vol. A, no. 2, 1989, pp. 186–194 (in Chinese).
9. Z. Chen and Q. Gao, "A New Context-Sensitive Subcategory (SC) Grammar for Machine Translation," Chinese J. Computers, no. 11, 1992, pp. 801–808 (in Chinese).
10. T. Yao et al., Natural Language Understanding: A Study to Make Machines Understand Human Language, Tsinghua Univ. Press, 2002 (in Chinese).
11. Y. Liu, Q. Tan, and X. Shen, The Standard of Contemporary Chinese Word Segmentation for Information Processing and Word Segmentation Methods, Tsinghua Univ. Press and Guangxi Press of Science and Technology, 1994 (in Chinese).
12. P.F. Brown et al., "A Statistical Approach to Machine Translation," Computational Linguistics, vol. 16, no. 2, 1990, pp. 79–85.
13. P.F. Brown et al., "The Mathematics of Statistical Machine Translation: Parameter Estimation," Computational Linguistics, vol. 19, no. 2, 1993, pp. 263–309.
14. A.L. Berger et al., "The Candide System for Machine Translation," Proc. ARPA Conf. Human Language Technology (HLT 94), Assoc. for Computational Linguistics, 1994, pp. 157–162.
15. J. Hutchins, "Machine Translation over Fifty Years," Histoire, Epistémologie, Langage, vol. 23, no. 1, 2001, pp. 7–31.
16. "Machine Translation," NSF Report on Multilingual Information Management: Current Levels and Future Abilities, ch. 4, 1999;
17. H. Kitano, Speech-to-Speech Translation: A Massively Parallel Memory-Based Approach, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994.
18. J. Yang et al., "Design and Implementation of Spontaneous English-to-Chinese Speech-to-Speech Translation System," J. Acoustics, vol. 17, no. 5, 1992, pp. 327–333.
19. C. Zong and M. Seligman, "Toward Practical Spoken Language Translation," Machine Translation, vol. 19, no. 2, 2005, pp. 113–137.
20. Z. Feng, "The History and Current Status of Corpus Base Development in China—Review and Problem Analysis of Corpus Based Research," Proc. Int'l Conf. Chinese Computing (ICCC 01), 2001, pp. 29–46 (in Chinese).
21. S. Yu et al., "The Specification for Basic Processing of the Contemporary Chinese Corpus at Peking University," J. Chinese Information Processing, vol. 16, nos. 5–6, 2002, pp. 49–64, 58–65 (in Chinese).
22. Z. Dong and D. Qiang, HowNet and the Computation of Meaning, World Scientific Publishing Company, 2006.
23. Z. Dong and Q. Dong, "HowNet—a Hybrid Language and Knowledge Resource," Proc. Int'l Conf. Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Eng., IEEE Press, 2003, pp. 820–824.
24. J. Mei et al., The Chinese Thesaurus, Shanghai Dictionary Press, 1996 (in Chinese).
25. C. Huang, "The Outline of HNC," J. Chinese Information Processing, vol. 11, no. 4, 1997, pp. 11–20 (in Chinese).
26. Y. Jin, Language Technology of HNC and Its Application, Science Press, 2006 (in Chinese).
27. J. Zhao et al., "Construction and Development of Chinese LDC," Some Important Issues in Chinese Information Processing, B. Xu et al., eds., Science Press, 2003, pp. 218–225 (in Chinese).
28. C. Huang and X. Zhang, "Milestones of Natural Language Processing Technology," Foreign Language Teaching and Research, no. 3, 2002, pp. 180–187 (in Chinese).
29. Z. Feng, "Multi-Label and Multi-Branch Tree for Automatic Analysis of Chinese Sentences," J. Artificial Intelligence, no. 2, 1983 (in Chinese).
30. X. Lin et al., Dictionary of Contemporary Chinese Verbs, Beijing Language and Culture Univ. Press, 1994 (in Chinese).
31. G.-A. Levow, "The Third International Chinese Language Processing Bakeoff: Word Segmentation and Named Entity Recognition," Proc. 5th SIGHAN Workshop Chinese Language Processing, Assoc. for Computational Linguistics, 2006, pp. 108–117.
32. Y. Liu, Q. Liu, and L. Shouxun, "Tree-to-String Alignment Template for Statistical Machine Translation," Proc. 21st Int'l Conf. Computational Linguistics and 44th Ann. Meeting Assoc. Computational Linguistics, Assoc. for Computational Linguistics, 2006, pp. 609–616.
33. Y. Liu, Research on Tree-to-String Statistical Translation Models, doctoral dissertation, Inst. Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, 2007 (in Chinese).
34. C.S. Fordyce, "Overview of the IWSLT 2007 Evaluation Campaign," Proc. Int'l Workshop Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 07), 2007, pp. 1–12; www.mtarchive.infoIWSLT-2007-TOC.htm.
35. Y. He et al., "The CASIA Statistical Machine Translation System for IWSLT 2008," Proc. Int'l Workshop Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 08), 2008, pp. 85–91; www.slc.atr.jpIWSLT2008.
36. X. Wang, "Chinese Pinyin Sentence Input System InSun," J. Chinese Information Processing, vol. 7, no. 2, 1993, pp. 45–54 (in Chinese).
37. L. Xu and T. Zhao, "Summarization of Results of Program Funded by NSFC in the Field of Natural Language Processing in Recent Years," J. Software, vol. 16, no. 10, 2005, pp. 1853–1858 (in Chinese).
21 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool