• Focuses on creating new computational devices
• Is often contrasted with the traditional approach in computer science that might be dubbed "machine-centered computing" 1
• Weak definitions of mission design alternatives
• Imprecise reasoning about tradeoffs among performance, cost, and safety
• Vague and unrealistic assumptions about operations concepts
• Unwillingness to change legacy systems because of unknown impacts
• Fragilities and user-hostile features that force local kludges and work-arounds
• Levels of abstraction and flexible movement among levels
• Multiple representations and expert coordination of multiple representations
• Fast, error-free communication in safety-critical situations, including predictive and preparatory aspects of communication
Michael G. Shafto has held supervisory and program management positions with the US Office of Naval Research and NASA since 1984. His main interests are formal and empirical analyses of human-automation systems. He has taught courses in behavioral science, operations research, R&D management, and quantitative methods. He has published in experimental and quantitative methods, systems engineering, human-computer interaction, developmental and educational psychology, applied psychology, and psycholinguistics. He received his AB from Carleton College and his PhD from Princeton University. Contact him at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Robert R. Hoffman is a research scientist at the University of West Florida's Institute for Human & Machine Cognition and is a faculty associate in the university's Department of Psychology. He specializes in expertise studies, including knowledge elicitation and the design of human-centered systems. He received his BA, MA, and PhD in experimental psychology from the University of Cincinnati. He is a Fulbright scholar and a fellow of the American Psychological Society. Contact him at the Inst. for Human & Machine Cognition, 40 Alcaniz St., Pensacola, FL 32501; email@example.com.