explicit, disembodied, persistent representation of crucial knowledge and information in an organization, in order to facilitate their access, sharing, and reuse by members of the organization, for their individual or collective tasks. 1,2
• human knowledge sources (such as experts, specialists, or operators), whose knowledge must be made explicit or who have written documents that others will access through the organizational memory;
• knowledge engineers, who acquire and model knowledge;
• knowledge watchers, who gather, filter, analyze, and distribute knowledge elements from the external world (from external information Web sources, for example);
• organizational memory developers, who concretely build, organize, annotate, maintain, and evolve the corporate memory;
• a team of validating experts (for example, a reference team), who validate the knowledge elements before their insertion in the organizational memory;
• corporate memory users, who must easily access and reuse memory elements; and
• organizational memory managers, who supervise the organizational memory project.
• technological intelligence, to follow an existing or an emerging technology;
• competitive intelligence, to know about activities, products, or services of competitors or other actors in the enterprise market;
• commercial intelligence, to know about the enterprise commercial environment such as distributors, suppliers, and customers; and
• strategic intelligence, to support the enterprise managers' strategic decisions.
• organizing and possibly indexing the corporate memory to enhance its diffusion;
• retrieving relevant elements of the corporate memory to answer a user's request or proactively push relevant elements toward users; and
• adapting the answer to users, in particular to their tasks, according to the corporate work processes.