The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.04 - July/August (2010 vol.27)
pp: 20-31
Hong Li , University of California, Santa Barbara
Chuan Xu , University of California, Santa Barbara
Kaustav Banerjee , University of California, Santa Barbara
<p>Editor's note:</p><p>Carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons are two promising next-generation interconnect technologies. Electrical modeling and performance analysis have demonstrated the superiority of these emerging technologies compared to conventional copper interconnects, as this article explains.</p><p align="right">&#x2014;Sriram Vangal, Intel</p>
design and test, carbon nanomaterials, carbon nanotube (CNT), graphene nanoribbon (GNR), electrical interconnects, optical interconnects, RF or wireless interconnects, on-chip vias, through-silicon vias (TSVs), delay, power
Hong Li, Chuan Xu, Kaustav Banerjee, "Carbon Nanomaterials: The Ideal Interconnect Technology for Next-Generation ICs", IEEE Design & Test of Computers, vol.27, no. 4, pp. 20-31, July/August 2010, doi:10.1109/MDT.2010.55
1. H. Li et al., "Carbon Nanomaterials for Next-Generation Interconnects and Passives: Physics, Status, and Prospects," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 56, no. 9, 2009, pp. 1799-1821.
2. T. Xu et al., "Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Through-Wafer Interconnects," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 91, no. 4, 2007, article 042108.
3. C. Xu et al., "Compact AC Modeling and Analysis of Cu, W, and CNT Based Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) in 3-D ICs," Proc. IEEE Int'l Electron Device Meeting (IEDM 09), IEEE Press, 2009, pp. 521-524.
4. J. Li et al., "Bottom-up Approach for Carbon Nanotube Interconnects," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 82, no. 15, 2003, pp. 2491-2493.
5. T. Iwai et al., "Thermal and Source Bumps Utilizing Carbon Nanotubes for Flip-Chip High Power Amplifiers," Proc. IEEE Int'l Electron Device Meeting (IEDM 05), IEEE Press, 2005, pp. 257-260.
6. K. Kordás et al., "Chip Cooling with Integrated Carbon Nanotube Microfin Architectures," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90, no. 12, 2007, article 123105.
7. M. Nihei et al., "Low-Resistance Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Vias with Parallel Channel Conduction of Inner Shells," Proc. IEEE Int'l Interconnect Technology Conf. (IITC 05), IEEE Press, 2005, pp. 234-236.
8. M. Katagiri et al., "Fabrication of 70-nm-Diameter Carbon Nanotube Via Interconnects by Remote Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition and Their Electrical Properties," Proc. IEEE Int'l Interconnect Technology Conf. (IITC 09), IEEE Press, 2009, pp. 44-46.
9. J. Dijon et al., "Carbon Nanotubes for Interconnects in Future Integrated Circuits: The Challenge of the Density," Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 19, nos. 5-6, 2010, pp. 382-388.
10. D.N. Futaba et al., "Shape-Engineerable and Highly Densely Packed Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Application as Super-Capacitor Electrodes," Nature Materials, vol. 5, no. 12, 2006, pp. 987-994.
11. A.R. Harutyunyan et al., "Preferential Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Metallic Conductivity," Science, vol. 326, no. 5949, 2009, pp. 116-120.
12. A. Kawabata et al., "Robustness of CNT Via Interconnect Fabricated by Low Temperature Process over a High-Density Current," Proc. Int'l Interconnect Technology Conf. (IITC 08), IEEE Press, 2008, pp. 237-239.
13. Q. Yu et al., "Graphene Segregated on Ni Surfaces and Transferred to Insulators," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, no. 11, 2008, article 113103.
14. X. Li et al., "Large-Area Synthesis of High-Quality and Uniform Graphene Films on Copper Foils," Science, June 2009, pp. 1314-1314.
15. D. Kondo, S. Sato, and Y. Awano, "Self-Organization of Novel Carbon Composite Structure: Graphene Multi-layers Combined Perpendicularly with Aligned Carbon Nanotubes," Applied Physics Express, vol. 1, no. 7, 2008, article 074003.
16. K.-H. Koo et al., "Performance Comparisons between Carbon Nanotubes, Optical, and Cu for Future High- Performance On-Chip Interconnect Applications," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 54, no. 12, 2007, pp. 3206-3215.
17. M. Haurylau et al., "On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 12, no. 6, 2006, pp. 1699-1705.
18. M.F. Chang et al., "CMP Network-on-Chip Overlaid with Multi-band RF-Interconnect," Proc. IEEE 14th Int'l Symp. High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA 14), IEEE Press, 2008, pp. 191-202.
19. D. Mizoguchi et al., "A 1.2Gb/s/Pin Wireless Superconnect Based on Inductive Inter-chip Signaling (IIS)," Proc. IEEE Int'l Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ISSCC 04), vol. 1, IEEE Press, 2004, pp. 142-143, 517.
13 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool