Issue No.01 - January/February (2000 vol.2)
Throughout the three-billion-year history of life on Earth, evolution and extinction have been inextricably linked. Species survive on average approximately 10 million years before they become extinct, so almost every species that has ever lived is extinct today. This high turnover has played a crucial role in long-term evolution because the removal of one species makes way for the another's evolution. The classic example is that of the dinosaurs, whose extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period 65 million years ago cleared the way for the subsequent dominance of the mammals and eventually the evolution of the human race.
Mark Newman, "Simple Models of Evolution and Extinction", Computing in Science & Engineering, vol.2, no. 1, pp. 80-86, January/February 2000, doi:10.1109/MCSE.2000.10003