Issue No.06 - November/December (1999 vol.1)
By most measures, the United States and Japan lead the world in the development of science and advanced technology. In fact, if the amount each spends on research and development (R&D) as a percentage of their gross domestic product indicates strength, Japan was number one with 2.78% in 1995, and the US followed with 2.52%, according to the National Science Foundation's (NSF) 1998 Science and Engineering Indicators. Both nations place a high premium on science and technology (S&T), not only as a means of acquiring knowledge but also of addressing societal problems in areas such as health, energy, national security, and the environment. Moreover, many policy makers look to S&T advancements to help create a strong industrial technology base and build global technological competitiveness. For all of these reasons, both countries have put in place an array of governmental policies aimed at ensuring the overall health of their S&T enterprise.
Nancy A. Forbes, "Japanese Reforms Foster Innovative Technology", Computing in Science & Engineering, vol.1, no. 6, pp. 4-9, November/December 1999, doi:10.1109/MCSE.1999.10024