January 2013 (Vol. 46, No. 1) pp. 18-19
0018-9162/13/$31.00 © 2013 IEEE
Published by the IEEE Computer Society
Published by the IEEE Computer Society
32 & 16 years ago
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PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE (p. 5) "… A few of the more significant achievements [of outgoing president, Tse-yun Feng] include the initiation of two new magazines aimed at a broad spectrum of our membership, purchase of a building to house our West Coast operations, inauguration of Tutorial Weeks to bring the latest technical information in an inexpensive way to our membership, establishment of the Computer Society Press to better support non-periodical publications, and carrying out a much-needed rewriting of our bylaws to reflect the present structure and organizational requirements."
HANDICAPPED COMPUTING (p. 9) "The United Nations has designated 1981 the International Year for Disabled Persons. It is therefore appropriate that Computer is dedicating its first issue of the year to computing and the handicapped. The evolution of low-cost computing technology promises an unprecedented spectrum of opportunities for the developmentally disabled. From aids to independent living to flexible tools that can greatly increase the variety and quality of job opportunities, the rapidly evolving field of computing is pregnant with possibilities. …"
JOBS FOR THE HANDICAPPED (p. 12) "The National Institute of Handicapped Research has been involved in developing programs and adapting computer technology to solve the problems of handicapped individuals. Our research and training center at Northwestern University, for example, has developed and is testing a sophisticated office environment in which a quadriplegic can effectively use a computer-controlled system to handle the telephone, typewriter, information storage bank, and tape recorder. As the system becomes fully marketable for use in other office settings, the opportunity to compete fairly in the job market will provide a great boost to the working-age handicapped public."
HANDICAPPED EDUCATION (p. 15) "Traditionally, the public educational system has had the responsibility of preparing citizens for their roles as contributing members of society; the handicapped are now, legally as well as morally, a part of that responsibility. But the educational community cannot perform this monumental task by itself—the pooled, cooperative effort of many disciplines will be required to make life more meaningful for the handicapped. This article addresses the need for a joint effort by the educational and computer communities."
COMMUNICATION DEVICES (p. 25) "At the Biomedical Engineering Center of Tufts-New England Medical Center … we are trying to address the communication problems of disabled people through a coherent philosophy of electronic communica-tion device development that stresses the personal, portable, and affordable as key concepts. Intertwined with these three concepts, although not as easily defined, is a fourth—speed."
HANDICAPPED PROGRAMMERS (p. 49) "Almost all graduates of these [rehabilitation] programs are placed in professional positions and become successful programmers; since 1973 over 300 seriously handicapped persons … have become self-supporting. However, without the availability of recent advances in computer technology and rehabilitation engineering, training of the severely handicapped could not have been considered."
MICROCOMPUTER AIDS (p. 54) "The potential of the microcomputer as a rehabilitation tool, however, is currently limited by a number of system and configurational constraints. … Removal of these constraints would permit application of microcomputers to a much broader range of rehabilitation problems, including those faced by the severely and multiply handicapped."
COMPUTING AND UNIVERSITIES (p. 74) "Universities are not as well suited to teaching many topics, including software engineering, computer-aided design/manufacture, and integrated circuit manufacture, as are large, technically proficient companies. During the last five years, major universities have begun tentative efforts in these subjects, but companies such as IBM, Texas Instruments, General Electric, and AT&T have had extensive in-house training programs in these areas for many years. Perhaps the universities would do well to leave such efforts to the large companies."
BLIND PROGRAMMERS (p. 92) "Five years ago, Arkansas Enterprises for the Blind, in Little Rock, started offering a computer programming course on an individual, informal basis; today, the course is part of its regular curriculum.
"As a result, 17 blind and visually impaired graduates of the course are now employed in programming positions across the country; two members of the most recent class of eight graduates have already found employment, and the others are seeking jobs. Job placement so far has been 100 percent."
EDITOR IN CHIEF'S MESSAGE (p. 8) "This is also the 51st year for the Computer Society. We thought it would be fun to project ahead a little bit as to what the next 50 years might bring, and so we put together a collection of essays. Here I'd like to take a little more space to project the future of Computer in the near future and to once again ask for your participation."
THE NEXT 50 YEARS (p. 16) "As the Computer Society begins its 51st year, some computing pioneers, past and present leaders of the Computer Society, and members look ahead to what the next 50 might bring."
ENCRYPTION AND PRIVACY (p. 28) "Hewlett-Packard has developed the International Cryptography Framework (ICF), the strongest encryption system approved for export by the US government to date. The hardware-software system provides various levels of encryption strength, depending on government regulations in the US and importing countries."
"However, some say ICF may prove to be a Trojan horse in the war over electronic communications privacy. They contend that millions of people will buy ICF-enabled equipment that has weak encryption and that would permit the US government to decrypt data transmissions easily."
A FASTER INTERNET (p. 31) "Although data indicates that Net traffic generally moves at a good clip ..., it is clear that many people want faster data-transmission speed now and that many others are worried about Internet speed in the future."
INDUCTION (p. 36) "The science of creating software is based on deductive methods. But induction, deduction's ignored sibling, could have a profound effect on the future development of computer science theory and practice."
NUDGE, NUDGE (p. 42) "With busy users relying increasingly on computers to provide reminders and alerts, the enabling technology is rapidly gaining importance. Surprisingly, many issues have not yet been thoroughly explored."
THE FUTURE INTERNET (p. 50) "Although it is clear that the Internet will have substantial influence in the larger information infrastructure by the turn of the century, it is unclear how the Internet will realize that influence. Will the Internet continue to grow? Will the Internet's definition expand to include other internetworked entities? How will protocol changes transform the Internet from the inside out? …"
INTERNET SECURITY (p. 57) "… The Internet continues to grow rapidly, but it is becoming increasingly segmented as companies resort to firewalls and intranets. If this continues, the concept of a global network will give way to many islands of private intranets only partially connected to a global structure. …"
HYPERMEDIA (p. 62) "Many organizations will embrace the World Wide Web as their primary application infrastructure. However, in the rush to acquire and retrofit Web applications, they risk bypassing the Web's greatest supplemental benefit—hypermedia."
OVERLOAD (p. 71) "Virtually cost-free publication on the Web has led to information overload. AI, with its roots in knowledge representation, is experiencing a renaissance as new tools emerge to make the Web more tractable."
THE GORDON BELL PRIZE (p. 80) "New hardware and an increase in the scale of an existing machine enabled contestants to nearly double last year's results in the performance and the price/performance categories."
INTERNET STANDARDS (p. 114) "The Internet Engineering Task Force—the primary organization for Internet standards—is experiencing phenomenal growth, which implies a vote of confidence in its approach to standards-making. …
"… One remarkable feature of the IETF standards process is its demand for actual implementations of a standard. In fact, the existence of two independently developed, interoperable implementations of a specification is a firm requirement for the specification to be given draft standard status."
RELIABLE SOFTWARE (p. 129) "… Design by contract … the principle that interfaces between modules of a software system … should be governed by precise specifications, similar to contracts between humans or companies. The contracts will cover mutual obligations (preconditions), benefits (postconditions), and consistency constraints (invariants).
THE YEAR I SHOOT MY TV (p. 136) "Consumerism is transforming our industry, prying it away from its business and academic roots and propelling it toward consumer electronics. … Computer companies may be influenced more by product managers in the entertainment and consumer market than by hard-core MIS managers."