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Issue No.08 - August (2012 vol.45)
pp: 82-84
William H. Boothby , Royal Air Force, United Kingdom
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg , Europa-Universitä:t Viadrina, Germany
James Bret Michael , Naval Postgraduate School
Michael N. Schmitt , US Naval War College
Thomas C. Wingfield , George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies
A cyberattack involving military or intelligence operations might not rise to the level of a “use of force” under international law.
Computer crime, Military communication, Network security, Computer security, law of armed conflict, security, cyberattacks, armed attacks, cyberwarfare
William H. Boothby, Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg, James Bret Michael, Michael N. Schmitt, Thomas C. Wingfield, "When Is a Cyberattack a Use of Force or an Armed Attack?", Computer, vol.45, no. 8, pp. 82-84, August 2012, doi:10.1109/MC.2012.282
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