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Issue No.12 - December (2008 vol.41)
pp: 34-43
Margaret H. Hamilton , Hamilton Technologies
William R. Hackler , Hamilton Technologies
ABSTRACT
Based on a preventive, development-before-the-fact philosophy that does not allow errors in the first place, the Universal Systems Language has evolved over several decades, offering system engineers and software developers a language they can use to solve problems previously considered next to impossible to solve with traditional approaches.
INDEX TERMS
NASA, Universal Systems Language
CITATION
Margaret H. Hamilton, William R. Hackler, "Universal Systems Language: Lessons Learned from Apollo", Computer, vol.41, no. 12, pp. 34-43, December 2008, doi:10.1109/MC.2008.541
REFERENCES
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3. M. Hamilton, "Zero-Defect Software: The Elusive Goal," IEEE Spectrum, Mar. 1986, pp. 48–53.
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11. Software Productivity Consortium, "Object-Oriented Methods and Tools Survey," SPC-98022-MC, v.02.00.02, Dec. 1998.
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14. HTI, 001 Tool Suite (1986–2008); www.htius.com and http://icb.nasa.gov001 orhtius.com/001_nasa.
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16. D. Bolinger and D.A. Sears, Aspects of Language, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981, p. 109.
17. M. Hamilton and W.R. Hackler, "Towards Cost Effective and Timely End-to-End Testing," HTI, prepared for Army Res. Lab., contract no. DAKF11-99-P-1236, 17 July 2000.
18. S. Cushing, "A Note on Arrows and Control Structures: Category Theory and HOS, Candidate BMD Data and Axioms," contract no. DASG60-77-C-0155, HOS, prepared for Ballistic Missile Defense, Advanced Technology Center, June 1978.
19. S. Friedenthal, A. Moore, and A. Steiner, "OMG Systems Modeling Language (OMG SysML) Tutorial," Proc. 16th Ann. Int'l Symp. INCOSE 2006, INCOSE, 2006.
20. M. Hamilton and W.R. Hackler, "A Formal Universal Systems Semantics for SysML," Proc. 17th Ann. Int'l Symp. INCOSE 2007, INCOSE, 2007, paper #8.3.2.
21. Object Management Group, "Systems Modeling Language," v. 1.0, 2006; www.omgsysml.org.
22. Department of Defense, "National Test Bed Software Engineering Tools Experiment—Final Report," vol. 1, Experiment Summary, Table 1, p. 9. Dept. of Defense Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, Washington, D.C., Oct. 1992.
23. M. Schindler, Computer-Aided Software Design, John Wiley &Sons, 1990.
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