• Sustainability. The failure of many ICT4D projects to deliver and survive prompted a new emphasis on ensuring the longevity of such projects.
• Scalability. The limited reach of individual telecenter projects motivated a new search for scalable ICT4D solutions.
• Evaluation. ICT4D 1.0 was often held aloft by hype and uncorroborated stories, which fostered a new interest in objective impact evaluation.
• Terminals. Ongoing efforts have focused on developing the type of low-spec, low-cost, robust terminal device that could work in large numbers of poor communities. The most high-profile of these is the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) project's XO and, not coincidentally, a slew of relatively similar devices is spewing forth. Despite 20 years of over-promising and underdelivering—from the "People's PC" to the Simputer—it seems low-cost terminals will be a central part of ICT4D 2.0.
• Telecommunications. Wireless has become the delivery mode of choice to provide connectivity to poor communities in the global South. Interest in satellite-based forms such as VSAT during the 1980s and 1990s has given way to a focus on land-based transmission systems. In the same way, attention is turning from Wi-Fi-based systems and innovation to WiMax.
• Power. With only 15 percent of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa having access to electricity, 1 three areas of innovation continue to be required that take us through the power cycle—new, low-cost devices for local electricity generation; better ways to store, carry, and transmit electricity; and lower power consumption by ICT devices.
• New processes. Beeping (or flashing) communicates a message without completing the call. Street vendors use this method to receive free "I want to buy now" messages from known customers.
• New business models. Use of air time as currency has let mobile phones metamorphose into mobile wallets. Those who own phones in poor communities have thus been able to use them for payments or for receipt of remittances from distant relatives.
• New products. Backstreet rechipping of phones has been facilitated by emerging informal sector enterprises that strip and resell circuitry from high-end phones, replacing it with basic calls-and-SMS-only functionality. They then sell the resulting high-end-body-with-low-end organs as a unique hybrid for those who want the latest look but lack the budget to match.
• From computer science: What is possible with digital technology?
• From IS: What is feasible with digital technology?
• From development studies: What is desirable with digital technology?
• Readiness: Having the policies and infrastructure to make ICT availability possible.
• Availability: Rolling out ICTs to the poor to help them become users.
• Uptake: Implementing and applying ICT to make it useful.
• Impact: Using ICTs to make the greatest developmental impact.