• not simply high computation rates, but real-time performance that meets deadlines;
• low power or energy consumption; and
• low cost.
• Classical computer architecture with the system bus concept. Much work has been done on bus architectures and arbitration strategies. This work is generally tightly coupled with the memory architecture. The key problem with the bus architecture is scaling when it incorporates a massive number of processors.
• Networking, which generated the concept of networks on chips. Key NoC concepts include distributing the communication structure and using multiple routes for data transfer. This allows creating flexible, programmable, and even reconfigurable networks. NoCs allow targeting MPSoC platforms to a much wider variety of products.
• concurrent design of both hardware and embedded software, leading to a shorter time-to-market;
• modular design of hardware and software components, leading to clearer design choices when building complex systems; and
• easier global validation of embedded systems including hardware and embedded software, leading to increased reliability and improved quality of service.