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What Has Influenced Computing Innovation?
February 1999 (vol. 32 no. 2)
pp. 33-43

Computing technology is nothing if not fast moving. Generations of products and their underlying electronics are introduced every 18 to 24 months. These developments are driven largely by competition and commercial reward, but many have their roots firmly in research funded by both the government and private sector. New products, processes, and services typically stem from the complex interaction of government, industry, and academia. But are there specific patterns in past successes? Over the years, a particular blend of government, industry, and academia has been the foundation of computing innovation. If the US is to sustain its past growth in computing, researchers, business leaders, and policy makers need to understand the elements of this synergy. One way to gain insight is to analyze past successes in significant areas The Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB) produced a report that overviews the innovations since World War II in five critical areas of computing technology: relational databases, the Internet, theoretical computer science, artificial intelligence, and virtual reality. The studies demonstrate significant interaction among industry, universities, and government in developing and commercializing computing technology.

Thomas P. Hughes, Jerry R. Sheehan, "What Has Influenced Computing Innovation?," Computer, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 33-43, Feb. 1999, doi:10.1109/2.745718
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