This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Efficient Simplification of Large Vector Maps Rendered onto 3D Landscapes
March/April 2011 (vol. 31 no. 2)
pp. 14-23
Ling Yang, State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science
Liqiang Zhang, State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science
Jingtao Ma, PTV America
Zhizhong Kang, China University of Geosciences
Lixin Zhang, State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science
Jonathan Li, University of Waterloo
Real-time rendering of large-scale vector maps over terrain surfaces requires displaying substantial numbers of polylines and polygons. Because a long latency in display and manipulation is fatal to maintaining presence in a virtual environment, a new method efficiently simplifies and renders such maps. This method consists of three steps. First, it simplifies the vector map while maintaining the map's topological consistency and preventing local conflicts such as intersections or self-intersections. Second, it generates view-dependent level-of-detail (LOD) models. Finally, it overlays the maps onto multiresolution terrain models through the stencil shadow volume algorithm and other techniques. Experiments demonstrated the method's efficiencies in real-time rendering of large-scale vector maps over various LOD terrain surfaces.

1. V. Chandru, V.T. Rajan, and R. Swaminathan, "Monotone Pieces of Chains," ORSA J. Computing, vol. 4, no. 4, 1992, pp. 439–446.
2. N. Mustafa et al., "Dynamic Simplification and Visualization of Large Maps," Int'l J. Geographical Information Science, vol. 20, no. 3, 2006, pp. 273–320.
3. D.H. Douglas and T.K. Peucker, "Algorithms for the Reduction of the Number of Points Required to Represent a Digitized Line or Its Caricature," Canadian Cartographer, vol. 10, no. 2, 1973, pp. 112–122.
4. M. Schneider and R. Klein, "Efficient and Accurate Rendering of Vector Data on Virtual Landscapes," J. WSCG, vol. 15, nos. 1–3, 2007, pp. 59–65.
5. Z. Zhao and A. Saalfeld, "Linear-Time Sleeve-Fitting Polyline Simplification Algorithms," Proc. Auto-Carto XIII, pp. 214–223.
6. B.S. Yang, R. Purves, and R. Weibel, "Efficient Transmission of Vector Data over the Internet," Int'l J. Geographical Information Science, vol. 21, no. 2, 2007, pp. 215–237.
7. S. Atlan and M. Garland, "Interactive Multiresolution Editing and Display of Large Terrains," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 25, no. 2, 2006, pp. 211–224.
8. S. Röttger et al., "Real-Time Generation of Continuous Levels of Detail for Height Fields," Proc. 6th Int'l Conf. in Central Europe on Computer Graphics and Visualization (WSCG '98), IEEE Computer Society Press, 1998, pp. 315–322.
1. D.H. Douglas and T.K. Peucker, "Algorithms for the Reduction of the Number of Points Required to Represent a Digitized Line or Its Caricature," Canadian Cartographer, vol. 10, no. 2, 1973, pp. 112–122.
2. M. Visvalingam and J.D. Whyatt, "Line Generalisation by Repeated Elimination of Points," Cartographic J., vol. 30, no. 1, 1993, pp. 46–51.
3. Z. Zhao and A. Saalfeld, "Linear-Time Sleeve-Fitting Polyline Simplification Algorithms," Proc. Auto-Carto XIII, pp. 214–223.
4. W.Z. Shi and C.K. Cheung, "Performance Evaluation of Line Simplification Algorithms for Vector Generalization," Cartographic J., vol. 43, no. 1, 2006, pp. 27–44.
5. R. Estkowski and J.S.B. Mitchell, "Simplifying a Polygonal Subdivision While Keeping It Simple," Proc. 17th ACM Symp. Computational Geometry, ACM Press, 2001, pp. 40–49.
6. L.J. Guibas et al., "Approximating Polygons and Subdivisions with Minimum Link Paths," Int'l J. Computational Geometry and Applications, vol. 3, no. 4, 1993, pp. 383–415.
7. A. Mantler and J. Snoeyink, "Safe Sets for Line Simplification," Proc. 10th Ann. Workshop Computational Geometry, Stony Brook Univ., 2000.
8. N. Mustafa et al., "Dynamic Simplification and Visualization of Large Maps," Int'l J. Geographical Information Science, vol. 20, no. 3, 2006, pp. 273–320.
1. Z. Wartell et al., "Rendering Vector Data over Global, Multiresolution 3D Terrain," Proc. 2003 Symp. Data Visualization, ACM Press, 2003, pp. 213–222.
2. O. Kersting and J. Döllner, "Interactive Visualization of Vector Data in GIS," Proc. 10th ACM Int'l Symp. Advances in GIS, ACM Press, 2002, pp. 107–112.
3. M. Schneider and R. Klein, "Efficient and Accurate Rendering of Vector Data on Virtual Landscapes," J. WSCG, vol. 15, nos. 1–3, 2007, pp. 59–65.

Index Terms:
vector map, simplification, level of detail, digital elevation models, overlay, computer graphics, graphics and multimedia
Citation:
Ling Yang, Liqiang Zhang, Jingtao Ma, Zhizhong Kang, Lixin Zhang, Jonathan Li, "Efficient Simplification of Large Vector Maps Rendered onto 3D Landscapes," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 14-23, March-April 2011, doi:10.1109/MCG.2010.63
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.