Subscribe
Issue No.04 - July/August (2010 vol.30)
pp: 62-73
Brent Lance , Army Research Laboratory
Stacy Marsella , University of Southern California
ABSTRACT
Gaze is an important but understudied signal for displaying emotion. The Expressive Gaze Model (EGM) is a hierarchical framework for composing simple behaviors into emotionally expressive gaze in virtual characters that encompasses eye, torso, and head movement. The EGM's primary components are the Gaze Warping Transformation (GWT), which generates emotionally expressive head and torso movement in a gaze shift, and an eye movement model. Researchers have used the EGM to produce several types of gaze shift, both with and without explicit emotional behavior.
INDEX TERMS
animation, games, computer graphics, virtual reality, graphics and multimedia
CITATION
Brent Lance, Stacy Marsella, "The Expressive Gaze Model: Using Gaze to Express Emotion", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.30, no. 4, pp. 62-73, July/August 2010, doi:10.1109/MCG.2010.43
REFERENCES
1. F. Thomas and O. Johnston, Disney Animation: The Illusion of Life, Abbeville Press, 1981.
2. B. Lance and S.C. Marsella, "Emotionally Expressive Head and Body Movement during Gaze Shifts," Intelligent Virtual Agents, LNCS 4722, 2007, pp. 72–85.
3. M. Thiebaux, B. Lance, and S.C. Marsella, "Real-Time Expressive Gaze Animation for Virtual Humans," Proc. 8th Int'l Conf. Autonomous Agents and Multi-agent Systems (AAMAS 09), vol. 1, Int'l Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, 2009, pp. 321–328.
4. A. Witkin and Z. Popovic, "Motion Warping," Proc. Siggraph, ACM Press, 1995, pp. 105–108.
5. K. Amaya, A. Bruderlin, and T. Calvert, "Emotion from Motion," Proc. Conf. Graphics Interface 1996, Canadian Information Processing Soc., 1996, pp. 222–229.
6. B. Lance and S.C. Marsella, "A Model of Gaze for the Purpose of Emotional Expression in Virtual Embodied Agents," Proc. Autonomous Agents and Multi-agent Systems (AAMAS 08), Int'l Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, 2008, pp. 199–206.
7. R.J. Leigh and D.S. Zee, The Neurology of Eye Movements, Oxford Univ. Press, 2006.
8. T. Uemura, Y. Arai, and C. Shimazaki, "Eye-Head Coordination during Lateral Gaze in Normal Subjects," Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 90, no. 1, 1980, pp. 191–198.
9. B. Lance and S.C. Marsella, "Glances, Glares, and Glowering: How Should a Virtual Human Express Emotion through Gaze?" J. Autonomous Agents and Multi-agent Systems, vol. 20, no. 1, 2009, pp. 50–69.
10. M.A.O. Vasilescu, "Human Motion Signatures: Analysis, Synthesis, Recognition," Proc. 2002 Int'l Conf. Pattern Recognition (ICPR 02), IEEE CS Press, 2002, pp. 456–460.
11. S.M. Platt and N.I. Badler, "Animating Facial Expressions," ACM Siggraph Computer Graphics, vol. 15, no. 3, 1981, p. 252.
12. A. Fukayama et al., "Messages Embedded in Gaze of Interface Agents—Impression Management with Agent's Gaze," Proc. 2002 SIGCHI Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems (SIGCHI 02), ACM Press, 2002, pp. 41–48.