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Brain Springs: Fast Physics for Large Crowds in WALL•E
July/August 2009 (vol. 29 no. 4)
pp. 19-25
Paul Kanyuk, Pixar Animation Studios
A major challenge of making WALL•E was creating believable physics for human and robot crowds. To do this, Pixar technical directors combined a custom spring-physics system in the Massive software platform with traditional simulation methods. The performance was fast enough to scale for large crowds and maintain interactivity for previews.

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Index Terms:
physics-based animation, crowd simulation, motion signal processing, spring physics, fake physics, behavioral animation, computer graphics
Paul Kanyuk, "Brain Springs: Fast Physics for Large Crowds in WALL•E," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 19-25, July-Aug. 2009, doi:10.1109/MCG.2009.59
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