This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Generating Comics from 3D Interactive Computer Graphics
May/June 2006 (vol. 26 no. 3)
pp. 53-61
Ariel Shamir, Interdisciplinary Center, Israel
Michael Rubinstein, Interdisciplinary Center, Israel
Tomer Levinboim, Interdisciplinary Center, Israel
There are times when computer graphics is required to be succinct and simple. Carefully chosen simplified and static images can portray a story narration as effectively as 3D photorealistic dynamic graphics. This article presents an automatic system that transforms dynamic graphics originating from interactions in a computer game's 3D virtual world into a sequence of static comic images. The system traces events during the interaction and then analyzes and breaks them into scenes. Based on user-defined parameters of point-of-view and story granularity it chooses specific time-frames to create static images, renders them, and applies postprocessing to reduce their cluttering. Our system extends the principle of intelligent reduction-of-details from the spatial to the temporal domain by choosing important events and depicting them visually. The end result is a sequence of comic images that summarize the main happenings in the game and present them in a coherent but concise manner.

1. M. Brand, "The 'Inverse Hollywood Problem From Video to Scripts and Storyboards via Causal Analysis," Proc. 14th Conf. Artificial Intelligence, AAAI Press, 1997, pp. 132–137.
2. S. McCloud, Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art, Harper Perennial, 1994.
3. S.K. Feiner and K.R. McKeown, "Automating the Generation of Coordinated Multimedia Explanations," Computer, vol. 24, no. 10, 1991, pp. 33–41.
4. E. André and T. Rist, "Generating Coherent Presentations Employing Textual and Visual Material," Artificial Intelligent Rev., vol. 9, no. 2–3, 1995, pp. 147–165.
5. M. Agrawala et al., "Designing Effective Step-by-Step Assembly Instructions," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 22, no. 3, 2003, pp. 828–837.
1. D. Kurlander, T. Skelly, and D. Salesin, "Comic Chat," Proc. Siggraph, vol. 30, ACM Press, 1996, pp. 225–236.
2. L. He, M.F. Cohen, and D.H. Salesin, "The Virtual Cinematographer: A Paradigm for Automatic Real-Time Camera Control and Directing," Proc. Siggraph, vol. 30, ACM Press, 1996, pp. 217–224.
3. N. Halper and M. Masuch, "Action Summary for Computer Games— Extracting and Capturing Action for Spectator Modes and Summaries," Proc. 2nd Int'l Conf. Application and Development of Computer Games, 2003, pp. 124–132; http:/ graphik/pub/files/Halper_2003_ASF.pdf.
4. D. Friedman et al., "Automated Creation of Movie Summaries in Interactive Virtual Environments," Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality, IEEE CS Press, 2004, pp. 191–199.
5. M. Nienhaus and J. Döllner, "Depicting Dynamics Using Principles of Visual Art and Narrations," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 25, no. 3, 2005, pp. 40–51.
6. R.C. Schank and R.P. Abelson, Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding: An Inquiry into Human Knowledge Structures, Lawrence Erlbaum, 1977.
7. L. Chittaro and L. Ieronutti, "A Visual Tool for Tracing Users' Behavior in Virtual Environments," Proc. Working Conf. Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 04), ACM Press, 2004, pp. 40–47.
8. N. Hoobler, G. Humphreys, and M. Agrawala, "Visualizing Competitive Behaviors in Multiuser Virtual Environments," Proc. IEEE Visualization, IEEE CS Press, 2004, pp. 163–170.

Index Terms:
comics generation, computer games, nonphotorealistic rendering, 3D graphics compression, digital storytelling
Ariel Shamir, Michael Rubinstein, Tomer Levinboim, "Generating Comics from 3D Interactive Computer Graphics," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 53-61, May-June 2006, doi:10.1109/MCG.2006.58
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.