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Issue No.06 - November/December (2005 vol.25)
pp: 38-46
Eric Foxlin , Isense
One of the main obstacles to the real-world deployment of location-sensitive wearable computing, including mixed reality, is that current position-tracking technologies require an instrumented, marked, or premapped environment, which is impractical in many applications. This article presents a pedestrian inertial navigation device called NavShoe, which can work in arbitrary unprepared indoor/outdoor environments. It consists of a miniature low-power inertial/magnetometer package tucked into the shoelaces of one foot, wirelessly coupled to a PDA that runs software to fuse inertial, geomagnetic, and optional GPS measurements to derive an optimal navigation pose solution. Novel algorithms are presented to accurately calibrate the compass for compensation of hard-iron and soft-iron distortions, and then align it to true north using GPS transfer alignment. Options are discussed for alternative aiding sensors indoors such as computer vision, map-correlation, and local landmark sensors. Finally, an approach is discussed to use the foot-mounted precision attitude reference as an alignment source for precision 6-DOF trackers of head-mounted and handheld implements such as augmented reality displays.
inertial, navigation, Tracking, pedestrian, dead reckoning, kalman filtering, magnetometers, MEMS, calibration, GPS
Eric Foxlin, "Pedestrian Tracking with Shoe-Mounted Inertial Sensors", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.25, no. 6, pp. 38-46, November/December 2005, doi:10.1109/MCG.2005.140
1. E. Foxlin,Inertial Head-Tracking, master's thesis, Dept. of Electrical Eng. and Computer Science, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 1993.
2. E. Foxlin, "Motion Tracking Technologies and Requirements," Handbook of Virtual Environment Technologies, K. Stanney, ed., Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers, 2002, chap. 8, p. 182.
3. E. Foxlin, "Inertial Head-Tracker Sensor Fusion by a Complementary Separate-Bias Kalman Filter," Proc. Virtual Reality Ann. Int'l Symp., IEEE CS Press, 1996, pp. 185-194.
4. S. Julier and J. Uhlmann, "A Non-Divergent Estimation Algorithm in the Presence of Unknown Correlations," Proc. Am. Control Conf., IEEE Press, 1997, pp. 2369-2373.
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