This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Pedestrian Tracking with Shoe-Mounted Inertial Sensors
November/December 2005 (vol. 25 no. 6)
pp. 38-46
Eric Foxlin, Isense
One of the main obstacles to the real-world deployment of location-sensitive wearable computing, including mixed reality, is that current position-tracking technologies require an instrumented, marked, or premapped environment, which is impractical in many applications. This article presents a pedestrian inertial navigation device called NavShoe, which can work in arbitrary unprepared indoor/outdoor environments. It consists of a miniature low-power inertial/magnetometer package tucked into the shoelaces of one foot, wirelessly coupled to a PDA that runs software to fuse inertial, geomagnetic, and optional GPS measurements to derive an optimal navigation pose solution. Novel algorithms are presented to accurately calibrate the compass for compensation of hard-iron and soft-iron distortions, and then align it to true north using GPS transfer alignment. Options are discussed for alternative aiding sensors indoors such as computer vision, map-correlation, and local landmark sensors. Finally, an approach is discussed to use the foot-mounted precision attitude reference as an alignment source for precision 6-DOF trackers of head-mounted and handheld implements such as augmented reality displays.

1. E. Foxlin,Inertial Head-Tracking, master's thesis, Dept. of Electrical Eng. and Computer Science, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 1993.
2. E. Foxlin, "Motion Tracking Technologies and Requirements," Handbook of Virtual Environment Technologies, K. Stanney, ed., Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers, 2002, chap. 8, p. 182.
3. E. Foxlin, "Inertial Head-Tracker Sensor Fusion by a Complementary Separate-Bias Kalman Filter," Proc. Virtual Reality Ann. Int'l Symp., IEEE CS Press, 1996, pp. 185-194.
4. S. Julier and J. Uhlmann, "A Non-Divergent Estimation Algorithm in the Presence of Unknown Correlations," Proc. Am. Control Conf., IEEE Press, 1997, pp. 2369-2373.
1. T. Judd, "A Personal Dead Reckoning Module," Proc. Inst. of Navigation Global Positioning System Conf., ION, 1997.
2. C. Randell, C. Djiallis,, and H. Muller, "Personal Position Measurement Using Dead Reckoning," Proc. 7th IEEE Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers, (ISWC), IEEE CS Press, 2003, pp. 166-173.
3. M. Kourogi and T. Kurata, "Personal Positioning Based on Walking Locomotion Analysis with Self-Contained Sensors and a Wearable Camera," Proc. 2nd IEEE and ACM Int'l Symp. Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), 2003, pp. 103-112.
4. L. Sher, "Personal Inertial Navigation System (PINS)," DARPA, 1996; http://www.darpa.mil/MTO/SmartMod/Factsheets Pins.html.
5. J. Elwell, "Inertial Navigation for the Urban Warrior," Proc. SPIE, vol. 3709, SPIE: The Int'l Soc. for Optical Eng., 1999, pp. 196-204.
6. R. Stirling et al., "An Innovative Shoe-Mounted Pedestrian Navigation System," Proc. European Navigation Conf. (GNSS), CD-ROM, Austrian Inst. of Navigation, 2003.

Index Terms:
inertial, navigation, Tracking, pedestrian, dead reckoning, kalman filtering, magnetometers, MEMS, calibration, GPS
Citation:
Eric Foxlin, "Pedestrian Tracking with Shoe-Mounted Inertial Sensors," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 38-46, Nov.-Dec. 2005, doi:10.1109/MCG.2005.140
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.