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Multidimensional Visual Representations for Underwater Environmental Uncertainty
September/October 2004 (vol. 24 no. 5)
pp. 56-65
Greg S. Schmidt, ITT Industries and Naval Research Laboratory
Sue-Ling Chen, ITT Industries and Naval Research Laboratory
Aaron N. Bryden, Naval Research Laboratory
Mark A. Livingston, Naval Research Laboratory
Lawrence J. Rosenblum, Naval Research Laboratory
Bryan R. Osborn, Metron, Inc.
Precise localization and tracking of submarines in the ocean is difficult. The difficulty lies in the inherent environmental uncertainties that affect acoustic propagation in the ocean. In active acoustic detection, a source device (sonar) transmits an acoustic signal into the surrounding environment, and the acoustic returns obtained from a set of receivers are processed to extract echoes from underwater objects. These echoes provide estimates of the position and, over time, the heading of a target. However, numerous factors limit the accurate reconstruction of the target's location and heading. This article investigates how to represent the resulting multivariate information and multidimensional uncertainty by developing and applying candidate visual techniques.

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Greg S. Schmidt, Sue-Ling Chen, Aaron N. Bryden, Mark A. Livingston, Lawrence J. Rosenblum , Bryan R. Osborn, "Multidimensional Visual Representations for Underwater Environmental Uncertainty," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 56-65, Sept.-Oct. 2004, doi:10.1109/MCG.2004.35
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