This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Evaluating Graphics Displays for Complex 3D Models
May/June 2002 (vol. 22 no. 3)
pp. 56-64
David J. Kasik, Boeing Commercial Airplanes Information Systems
James J. Troy, Boeing Company
Stephen R. Amorosi, Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Marie O. Murray, Boeing Mathematics and Computing Technology
Shankar N. Swamy, Boeing Company

A number of technologies have matured to the point that 3D geometry is essential to design and build physical products. As geometric models become more complex, visual analysis of the models and associated computational results have become essential tools. Complications arise because new computing technology and display technology are being introduced daily. Display technology is particularly hard to assess because of the real variety in technical approaches (rendering techniques like shading and stereo and screen configurations like flat, cylindrical, and spherical) and the need to understand the human visual/perceptual process. This article summarizes the results of an assessment of navigation through complex 3D geometry to find detailed components on three different display devices. The experiment was performed within a framework that was developed to support systematic future research.

1. W.A. McNeely, K.D. Puterbaugh, and J.J. Troy, "Six Degree-of-Freedom Haptic Rendering Using Voxel Sampling," Computer Graphics (Proc. Siggraph 99), ACM Press, New York, 1999, pp. 401-408.
2. D.J. Kasik, "Viewing the Future of CAD," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 20, no. 1, Jan./Feb. 2000, pp. 34-35.
3. W. Buxton, "Less is More (More or Less): Some Thoughts on the Design of Computers and the Future," The Invisible Future: The Seamless Integration of Technology in Everyday Life, P. Denning, ed., McGraw Hill, New York, 2001.
4. J.J. Gibson, The Perception of the Visual World, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1950.
5. D.H. Hubel and T.N. Wiesel, "Brain Mechanisms of Vision," Scientific American, vol. 241, no. 3, Sept. 1979, pp. 150-162.
6. E. Tufte, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, Graphics Press, Cheshire, Conn., 1983.
7. C. Ware, Information Visualization: Perception for Design, Morgan Kaufman, San Francisco, 1999.
8. G. Winkenbach and D.H. Salesin, "Computer-Generated Pen-and-Ink Illustration," Computer Graphics (Proc. Siggraph 94), ACM Press, New York, 1994, pp. 91-100.
9. C. Curtis et al., "Computer-Generated Watercolor," Computer Graphics (Proc. Siggraph 97), ACM Press, New York, 1997, pp. 421-430.
10. A.W. Siegel and S.H. White, "The Development of Spatial Representations of Large-scale Environments," Advances in Childhood Development and Behavior, H.W. Reese, ed., vol. 10, Academic Press, New York, 1975, pp. 9-55.
11. P.W. Thorndyke and B. Hayes-Roth, "Differences in Spatial Knowledge Acquired from Maps and Navigation," Cognitive Psychology, vol. 4, no. 4, Oct. 1982, pp. 560-589.
12. V. Aginsky et al., "Two Strategies for Learning a Route in a Driving Simulator," J. Environmental Psychology, vol. 17, no. 4, Dec. 1997, pp. 317-331.
13. R. Pausch, D. Proffitt, and G. Williams, "Quantifying Immersion in Virtual Reality," Computer Graphics (Proc. Siggraph 97), ACM Press, New York, 1997, pp. 13-18.
14. L. Nelson, D. Cook, and C. Cruz-Neira, "XGobi vs. the C2: Results of an Experiment Comparing Data Visualization in a 3-D Immersive Virtual Reality Environment with a 2-D Workstation Display," Computational Statistics, vol. 14, no. 1, Jan. 1999, pp. 39-51.
15. C. Ware and G. Franck, "Evaluating Stereo and Motion Cues for Visualizing Information Nets in Three Dimensions," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 15, no. 2, Apr. 1996, pp. 121-139.
16. C.W. Dunnett, "Pairwise Multiple Comparisons in the Homogeneous Variance, Unequal Sample Size Case," J. Am. Statistical Assoc., no. 75, 1980. pp. 789-795.
17. K.R. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J.P. Thomas, eds., Handbook of Perception and Human Performance: Sensory Processes and Perception, vol. 1,John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1986.
18. W. Bohanon, "Display&Projection—5 Gas Plasma Displays," Presentations, Dec. 2000, search_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1098137 .
19. L.R. Wanger, J.A. Ferwerda, and D.P. Greenberg, “Perceiving Spatial Relationships in Computer-Generated Images,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 44-58, May 1992.

Index Terms:
3D geometry, display devices, large screens, rendering techniques, visual perception.
David J. Kasik, James J. Troy, Stephen R. Amorosi, Marie O. Murray, Shankar N. Swamy, "Evaluating Graphics Displays for Complex 3D Models," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 56-64, May-June 2002, doi:10.1109/MCG.2002.999788
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.