The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.06 - November/December (2001 vol.21)
pp: 34-47
ABSTRACT
<p>An augmented reality (AR) system supplements the real world with virtual (computer-generated) objects that appear to coexist in the same space as the real world. While many researchers broaden the definition of AR beyond this vision, we define AR systems as having the following properties: combines real and virtual objects in a real environment, runs interactively, and in real time, and registers (that is, aligns) real and virtual objects with each other.</p>
CITATION
Ronald Azuma, Yohan Baillot, Reinhold Behringer, Steven Feiner, Simon Julier, Blair MacIntyre, "Recent Advances in Augmented Reality", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.21, no. 6, pp. 34-47, November/December 2001, doi:10.1109/38.963459
REFERENCES
1. P. Milgram and F. Kishino, "A Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays," IEICE Trans. Information Systems, vol. E77-D, no. 12, 1994, pp. 1321-1329.
2. I. Sutherland, "A Head-Mounted Three-Dimensional Display," Fall Joint Computer Conf., Am. Federation of Information Processing Soc. (AFIPS)Conf. Proc. 33,Thompson Books, Washington, D.C., 1968, pp. 757-764.
3. R. Azuma, "A Survey of Augmented Reality," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. vol. 6, no. 4, Aug. 1997, pp. 355-385.
4. H.L. Pryor, T.A. Furness, and E. Viirre, "The Virtual Retinal Display: A New Display Technology Using Scanned Laser Light," Proc. 42nd Human Factors Ergonomics Soc.,Santa Monica, Calif., 1998, pp. 1570-1574.
5. M.B. Spitzer et al., "Eyeglass-Based Systems for Wearable Computing," Proc. 1st Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers, (ISWC 97), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997, pp. 48-51.
6. I. Kasai et al., "A Forgettable Near Eye Display," Proc. 4th Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers (ISWC 2000), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 115-118.
7. J. Rekimoto, "NaviCam: A Magnifying Glass Approach to Augmented Reality," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 6, no. 4, Aug. 1997, pp. 399-412.
8. R. Raskar, G. Welch, and W-C. Chen, "Table-Top Spatially-Augmented Realty: Bringing Physical Models to Life with Projected Imagery," Proc. 2nd Int'l Workshop Augmented Reality (IWAR 99), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999, pp. 64-71.
9. H. Hua et al., "An Ultra-light and Compact Design and Implementation of Head-Mounted Projective Displays," Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality 2001, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2001, pp. 175-182.
10. M. Inami et al., "Visuo-Haptic Display Using Head-Mounted Projector," Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality 2000, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 233-240.
11. S. Mann, "Telepointer: Hands-Free Completely Self Contained Wearable Visual Augmented Reality without Headwear and without Any Infrastructural Reliance," Proc. 4th Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers (ISWC 2000), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 177-178.
12. J. Underkoffler and H. Ishii, "Illuminating Light: An Optical Design Tool with a Luminous-Tangible Interface," Proc. of CHI 98, ACM Press, New York, 1998, pp. 542-549.
13. K. Kiyokawa, Y. Kurata, and H. Ohno, "An Optical See-through Display for Mutual Occlusion of Real and Virtual Environments," Proc. Int'l Symp. Augmented Reality 2000 (ISAR 00), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 60-67.
14. F.A. Biocca and J.P. Rolland, "Virtual Eyes Can Rearrange Your Body: Adaptation to Visual Displacement in See-Through, Head-Mounted Displays," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. vol. 7, no. 3, June 1998, pp. 262-277.
15. A. Takagi et al., "Development of a Stereo Video See-through HMD for AR Systems," Proc. Int'l Symp. Augmented Reality 2000 (ISAR 00), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 68-77.
16. T. Sugihara and T. Miyasato, "A Lightweight 3D HMD with Accommodative Compensation," Proc. 29th Soc. Information Display (SID 98), San Jose, Calif., 1998, pp. 927-930.
17. J.P. Rolland, L.D. Davis, and Y. Baillot, "A Survey of Tracking Technologies for Virtual Environments," Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality, W. Barfield and T. Caudell, eds., Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, N.J., 2001, pp. 67-112.
18. Y. Yokokohji, Y. Sugawara, and T. Yoshikawa, "Accurate Image Overlay on Video See-through HMDs Using Vision and Accelerometers," Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality 2000, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 247-254.
19. G. Welch and G. Bishop, "Scaat: Incremental Tracking with Incomplete Information," Proc. ACM Siggraph 97, ACM Press, New York, 1997, pp. 333-344.
20. E. Foxlin, M. Harrington, and G. Pfeifer, "Constellation: A Wide-Range Wireless Motion-Tracking System for Augmented Reality and Virtual Set Applications," Proc. Ann. Conf. Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (Proc. Siggraph 98), M.F. Cohen, ed., ACM Press, New York, 1998, pp. 371-378.
21. G. Welch et al., "High-Performance Wide-Area Optical Tracking—The HiBall Tracking System," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. vol. 10, no. 1, Feb. 2001, pp. 1-21.
22. Y. Cho, J. Lee, and U. Neumann, "A Multi-Ring Fiducial System and an Intensity-Invariant Detection Method for Scalable Augmented Reality," Proc. Int'l Workshop Augmented Reality (IWAR 98), A.K. Peters, Natick, Mass., 1998, pp. 147-165.
23. F. Sauer et al., "Augmented Workspace: Designing an AR Testbed," Proc. Int'l Symp. Augmented Reality 2000 (ISAR 00), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 47-53.
24. Y. Ohta et al., "Share-Z: Client/Server Depth Sensing for See-through Head Mounted Displays," Proc. 2nd Int'l Symp. Mixed Reality (ISMR 2001), MR Systems Lab, Yokohama, Japan, 2001, pp. 64-72.
25. T. Kanade et al., "Virtualized Reality: Digitizing a 3D Time-Varying Event As Is and in Real Time," Proc. Int'l Symp. Mixed Reality (ISMR 99), Springer-Verlag, Secaucus, N.J., 1999, pp. 41-57.
26. R. Azuma et al., "A Motion-Stabilized Outdoor Augmented Reality System," Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999, pp. 252-259.
27. R. Azuma et al., "Tracking in Unprepared Environments for Augmented Reality Systems," Computers and Graphics, vol. 23, no. 6, Dec. 1999, pp. 787-793.
28. S. You, U. Neumann, and R. Azuma, Hybrid Inertial and Vision Tracking for Augmented Reality Registration Proc. IEEE Virtual Realiy Conf., pp. 260-267, Mar. 1999.
29. K. Satoh et al., "Townwear: An Outdoor Wearable MR System with High-Precision Registration," Proc. 2nd Int'l Symp. Mixed Reality (ISMR 2001), MR Systems Lab, Yokohama, Japan, 2001, pp. 210-211.
30. K. Sawada, M. Okihara, and S. Nakamura, "A Wearable Attitude Measurement System Using a Fiber Optic Gyroscope," Proc. 2nd Int'l Symp. Mixed Reality (ISMR 2001), MR Systems Lab, Yokohama, Japan, 2001, pp. 35-39.
31. U. Neumann and S. You, "Natural Feature Tracking for Augmented Reality," IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 1, no. 1, Mar. 1999, pp. 53-64.
32. R. Behringer, "Registration for Outdoor Augmented Reality Applications Using Computer Vision Techniques and Hybrid Sensors," Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999, pp. 244-251.
33. V. Coors, T. Huch, and U. Kretschmer, "Matching Buildings: Pose Estimation in an Urban Environment," Proc. Int'l Symp. Augmented Reality 2000 (ISAR 00), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 89-92.
34. B. Jiang, S. You, and U. Neumann, "Camera Tracking for Augmented Reality Media," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Multimedia Expo 2000, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 1637-1640.
35. G. Simon, A.W. Fitzgibbon, and A. Zisserman, "Markerless Tracking Using Planar Structures in the Scene," Proc. Int'l Symp. Augmented Reality 2000 (ISAR 00), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 120-128.
36. Y. Akatsuka and G.A. Bekey, "Compensation for End to End Delays in a VR System," Proc. Virtual Reality Ann. Int'l Symp. (VRAIS 98), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998, pp. 156-159.
37. L. Chai et al., "An Adaptive Estimator for Registration in Augmented Reality," Proc. 2nd Int'l Workshop Augmented Reality (IWAR 99), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999, pp. 23-32.
38. M.C. Jacobs, M.A. Livingston, and A. State, "Managing Latency in Complex Augmented Reality Systems," Proc. 1997 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics, ACM Press, New York, 1997, pp. 49-54.
39. M. Regan et al., "A Real Time Low-Latency Hardware Light-Field Renderer," Proc. Siggraph 99, ACM Press, New York, 1999, pp. 287-290.
40. R. Kijima, E. Yamada, and T. Ojika, "A Development of Reflex HMD-HMD with Time Delay Compensation Capability," Proc. 2nd Int'l Symp. Mixed Reality (ISMR 2001), MR Systems Lab, Yokohama, Japan, 2001, pp. 40-47.
41. W.R. Mark, L. McMillan, and G. Bishop, "Post-Rendering 3D Warping," M. Cohen and D. Zeltzer, eds., Proc. 1997 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics, ACM Press, New York, 1997, pp. 7-16.
42. K.N. Kutulakos and J. Vallino, “Calibration-Free Augmented Reality,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-20, Jan.-Mar. 1998.
43. Y. Seo and K-S. Hong, "Weakly Calibrated Video-Based Augmented Reality: Embedding and Rendering through Virtual Camera," Proc. Int'l Symp. Augmented Reality 2000 (ISAR 00), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 129-136.
44. B. Hoff and R. Azuma, "Autocalibration of an Electronic Compass in an Outdoor Augmented Reality System," Proc. Int'l Symp. Augmented Reality 2000 (ISAR 00), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 159-164.
45. T. Ohshima et al., "RV-Border Guards: A Multi-Player Mixed Reality Entertainment," Trans. Virtual Reality Soc. Japan, vol. 4, no. 4, 1999, pp. 699-705.
46. S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, and T. Höllerer, A Touring Machine: Prototyping 3D Mobile Augmented Reality Systems for Exploring the Urban Environment Proc. First Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers, pp. 74-81, Oct. 1997.
47. J. Rekimoto and M. Saitoh, "Augmented Surfaces: A Spatially Continuous Work Space for Hybrid Computing Environments," Proc. CHI 99, ACM Press, New York, 1999, pp. 378-385.
48. A. Butz et al., "Enveloping Users and Computers in a Collaborative 3D Augmented Reality," Proc. 2nd Int'l Workshop Augmented Reality (IWAR 99), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999, pp. 35-44.
49. Zs. Szalavári and M. Gervautz, "The Personal Interaction Panel—A Two-Handed Interface for Augmented Reality," Proc. 18th Eurographics, Eurographics Assoc., Aire-la-Ville, Switzerland, 1997, pp. 335-346.
50. H. Kato et al., "Virtual Object Manipulation of a Table-Top AR Environment," Proc. Int'l Symp. Augmented Reality 2000 (ISAR 00), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 111-119.
51. T. Ohshima et al., "AR2 Hockey: A Case Study of Collaborative Augmented Reality," Proc. IEEE Virual Reality Annual Int'l Symp., IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998, pp.268-275.
52. M. Billinghurst, H. Kato, and I. Poupyrev, "The MagicBook—Moving Seamlessly between Reality and Virtuality," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 21, no. 3, May/June 2001, pp. 2-4.
53. B. MacIntyre and E.M. Coelho, "Adapting to Dynamic Registration Errors Using Level of Error (LOE) Filtering," Proc. Int'l Symp. Augmented Reality 2000 (ISAR 00), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 85-88.
54. A. Fuhrmann et al., "Occlusion in Collaborative Augmented Environments," Computers and Graphics, vol. 23, no. 6, Dec. 1999, pp. 809-819.
55. S. Julier et al., "Information Filtering for Mobile Augmented Reality," Proc. 2000 IEEE Int'l Symp. Augmented Reality, IEEE Press, Piscataway, N.J., 2000, pp. 3-11.
56. B. Bell, S. Feiner,, and T. Höllerer,"View Management for Virtual and Augmented Reality," Proc. ACM Symp. on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST 2001), ACM Press, New York, 2001, pp. 101-110.
57. V. Lepetit and M.-O. Berger, "Handling Occlusions in Augmented Reality Systems: A Semi-Automatic Method," Proc. Int'l Symp. Augmented Reality 2000 (ISAR 00), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 137-146.
58. J. Stauder, "Augmented Reality with Automatic Illumination Control Incorporating Ellipsoidal Models," IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 1, no. 2, June 1999, pp. 136-143.
59. Y. Mukaigawa, S. Mihashi, and T. Shakunaga, "Photometric Image-Based Rendering for Virtual Lighting Image Synthesis," Proc. 2nd Int'l Workshop Augmented Reality (IWAR 99), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999, pp. 115-124.
60. P.E. Debevec, "Rendering Synthetic Objects into Real Scenes: Bridging Traditional and Image-based Graphics with Global Illumination and High Dynamic Range Photography," Proc. SIGGRAPH 98, pp. 189-198, July 1998.
61. U. Neumann and A. Majoros, "Cognitive, Performance, and Systems Issues for Augmented Reality Applications in Manufacturing and Maintenance," Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality Ann. Int'l Symp. (VRAIS 98), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998, pp. 4-11.
62. D. Drascic and P. Milgram, "Perceptual Issues in Augmented Reality," Proc. SPIE, Stereoscopic Displays VII and Virtual Systems III, SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., vol. 2653, 1996, pp. 123-134.
63. J.P. Rolland and H. Fuchs, "Optical Versus Video See-through Head-Mounted Displays in Medical Visualization," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 9, no. 3, June 2000, pp. 287-309.
64. R.L. Holloway, "Registration Error Analysis for Augmented Reality," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. vol. 6, no. 4, Aug. 1997, pp. 413-432.
65. S.R. Ellis et al., "Factors Influencing Operator Interaction with Virtual Objects Viewed via Head-Mounted See-through Displays: Viewing Conditions and Rendering Latency," Proc. Virtual Reality Ann. Int'l Symp. (VRAIS 97), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997, pp. 138-145.
66. L. Vaissie and J. Rolland, "Accuracy of Rendered Depth in Head-Mounted Displays: Choice of Eyepoint Locations," Proc. SPIE AeroSense 2000, SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., vol. 4021, 2000, pp. 343-353.
67. D. Curtis et al., "Several Devils in the Details: Making an AR Application Work in the Airplane Factory," Proc. Int'l Workshop Augmented Reality (IWAR 98), A.K. Peters, Natick, Mass., 1998, pp. 47-60.
68. N. Navab et al., "Scene Augmentation via the Fusing of Industrial Drawings and Uncalibrated Images with a View to Marker-less Calibration," Proc. 2nd IEEE&ACM Int'l Workshop Augmented Reality (IWAR 99), IEEE Press, Piscataway, N.J., 1999, pp. 125-133.
69. N. Navab, A. Bani-Hashemi, and M. Mitschke, "Merging Visible and Invisible: Two Camera-Augmented Mobile C-arm (CAMC) Applications," Proc. 2nd Int'l Workshop Augmented Reality (IWAR 99), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999, pp. 134-141.
70. H. Fuchs et al., "Augmented Reality Visualization for Laparoscopic Surgery," Proc. 1st Int'l Conf. Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention (MICCAI 98), Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 1998, pp. 934-943.
71. S. Weghorst, "Augmented Reality and Parkinson's Disease," Comm. ACM, vol. 40, no. 8, Aug. 1997, pp. 47-48.
72. T. Starner et al., "Augmented Reality through Wearable Computing," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 6, no. 4, Aug. 1997, pp. 386-398.
73. T. Höllerer et al., "Exploring MARS: Developing Indoor and Outdoor User Interfaces to a Mobile Augmented Reality System," Computers and Graphics, vol. 23, no. 6, Dec. 1999, pp. 779-785.
74. Y. Baillot, D. Brown, and S. Julier, "Authoring of Physical Models Using Mobile Computers," to appear in Proc. Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2001.
75. W. Piekarski, B. Gunther, and B. Thomas, "Integrating Virtual and Augmented Realities in an Outdoor Application," Proc. 2nd Int'l Workshop Augmented Reality (IWAR 99), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999, pp. 45-54.
76. B. Thomas et al., "ARQuake: An Outdoor/Indoor Augmented Reality First Person Application," Proc. 4th Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers (ISWC 2000), 2000, pp. 139-146.
77. D. Stricker et al., "Design and Development Issues for Archeoguide: An Augmented Reality based Cultural Heritage On-Site Guide," Proc. Int'l Conf. Augmented Virtual Environments and 3D Imaging (ICAV3D 2001), Publishing ZITI, Greece, 2001, pp. 1-5, http:/www.ziti.gr.
78. J. Rekimoto, Y. Ayatsuka, and K. Hayashi, “Augment-Able Reality: Situated Communication through Physical and Digital Spaces,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers, pp. 18-24, Pittsburgh, Oct. 1998.
79. R. Behringer et al., "A Wearable Augmented Reality Testbed for Navigation and Control, Built Solely with Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) Hardware," Proc. Int'l Symp. Augmented Reality 2000 (ISAR 00), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 2000, pp. 12-19.
80. S. Mann, "Wearable Computing: A First Step toward Personal Imaging," Computer, vol. 30, no. 2, Feb. 1997, pp. 25-32.
81. M. Billinghurst and H. Kato, "Collaborative Mixed Reality," Proc. Int'l Symp. Mixed Reality (ISMR 99), Springer-Verlag, Secaucus, N.J., 1999, pp. 261-284.
82. J. Rekimoto, "Transvision: A Hand-Held Augmented Reality System for Collaborative Design," Proc. Virtual Systems and Multimedia (VSMM 96), Int'l Soc. Virtual Systems and Multimedia, Gifu, Japan, 1996, pp. 85-90.
83. Zs. Szalavári et al., "Studierstube: An Environment for Collaboration in Augmented Reality," Virtual Reality—Systems, Development and Application, vol. 3, no. 1, 1998, pp. 37-49.
84. S. Julier et al., "The Software Architecture of a Real-Time Battlefield Visualization Virtual Environment," Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality 99, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1999, pp. 29-36.
85. T. Jebara et al., "Stochasticks: Augmenting the Billiards Experience with Probabilistic Vision and Wearable Computers," Proc. 1st Int'l Symp. Wearable Computers (ISWC 97), IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997, pp. 138-145.
86. R. Cavallaro, "The FoxTrax Hockey Puck Tracking System," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 17, no. 2, Mar./Apr. 1997, pp. 6-12.
87. F. Brooks, Jr., "What's Real about Virtual Reality?" IEEE CG&A, Vol. 19, No. 6, Nov./Dec. 1999, pp. 16-27.
88. B. MacIntyre et al., "Ghosts in the Machine: Integrating 2D Video Actors into a 3D AR System," Proc. 2nd Int'l Symp. Mixed Reality (ISMR 2001), MR Systems Lab, Yokohama, Japan, 2001, pp. 73-80.
21 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool