The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.06 - November/December (2001 vol.21)
pp: 25-33
ABSTRACT
<p>Most current VR application domains are expensive, large-scale applications that are sold to, and used by, a few rich customers. Currently, there is no such thing as a VR mass market. Successful commercial VR is based on selling expensive pieces of hardware and software to a small number of clients who have the financial, spatial, and human resources to purchase, house, and maintain them. The one exception has been the use of virtual environments in the treatment of psychological disorders. The typical customer for these systems is not a large government agency or international company, but usually a clinician in a hospital or an independent clinic. As a result, VR therapy systems have had to be inexpensive, easy to use and maintain, and usually must fit into existing space in a clinician's office.</p>
CITATION
Larry F. Hodges, Page Anderson, Grigore C. Burdea, Hunter G. Hoffman, Barbara O. Rothbaum, "Treating Psychological and Physical Disorders with VR", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.21, no. 6, pp. 25-33, November/December 2001, doi:10.1109/38.963458
REFERENCES
1. F. Brooks, Jr., "What's Real about Virtual Reality?" IEEE CG&A, Vol. 19, No. 6, Nov./Dec. 1999, pp. 16-27.
2. American Psychiatric Assoc., Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth ed., APA, Washington, D.C., 1994.
3. W.J. Magee, "Agoraphobia, Simple Phobia, and Social Phobia in the National Comorbidity Survey," Archives of General Psychiatry, no. 53, 1996, pp. 159-168.
4. Research Plan for the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research, Nat'l Insts. of Health publication no. 93-3509, Nat'l Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research, Washington, D.C., 1993.
5. E. Brandt and A. Pope, eds., Enabling America—Assessing the Role of Rehabilitation Science and Engineering, Nat'l Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1997.
6. E.B. Foa and M.J. Kozak, "Emotional Processing of Fear: Exposure to Corrective Information," Psychological Bull., vol. 99, 1986, pp. 20-35.
7. B.O. Rothbaum et al., "Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Graded Exposure in the Treatment of Acrophobia," Am. J. Psychiatry, vol. 152, 1995, pp. 626-628.
8. B.O. Rothbaum et al., "Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy in the Treatment of Fear of Flying: A Case Report," Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 34, no. 5/6, 1996, pp. 477-481.
9. A.S. Carlin, H.G. Hoffman, and S. Weghorst, "Virtual Reality and Tactile Augmentation in the Treatment of Spider Phobia: A Case Report," Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 35, no. 2, Feb. 1997, pp. 153-158.
10. C. Botella et al., "Virtual Reality Treatment of Claustrophobia: A Case Report," Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 36, no. 2, Feb. 1998, pp. 239-246.
11. L.F. Hodges et al., "Virtual Environments for Treating the Fear of Heights," Computer, vol. 28, no. 7, July 1995, pp. 27-34.
12. B.O. Rothbaum, "A Controlled Study of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for the Fear of Flying," J. Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 68, no. 6, 2000, pp. 1020-1026.
13. B.O. Rothbaum et al., "12-month Follow-Up of Virtual Reality and Standard Exposure Therapies for the Fear of Flying," to be published in J. Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
14. A. Garcia-Palacios et al., "Redefining Therapeutic Success with VR Exposure Therapy," to be published in Cyberpsychology&Behavior.
15. D.R. Weiss et al., "The Prevalence of Lifetime and Partial Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Vietnam Veterans," J. Traumatic Stress, vol. 5, 1992, pp. 365-376.
16. M. van Etten and S. Taylor, "Comparative Efficacy of Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis," Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, vol. 5, 1998, pp. 126-145.
17. B.O. Rothbaum et al., "Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Vietnam Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder," to be published in J. Traumatic Stress.
18. F.L. Schneier et al., "Functional Impairment in Social Phobia," J. Clinical Psychology, vol. 55, 1994, pp. 322-331.
19. M.B. Stein, J.R. Walker, and D.R. Forde, "Public-Speaking Fears in a Community Sample," Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 53, 1994, pp. 169-174.
20. P. Anderson, B.O. Rothbaum, and L. Hodges, "Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for the Fear of Public Speaking: A Case Study," presented at the Ann. Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., 2000.
21. S.G. Hofmann and P.M. DiBartolo, "An Instrument to Assess Self-Statements during Public Speaking: Scale Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties," Behavior Therapy, vol. 31, 2000, pp. 499-515.
22. R. Klorman et al., "Psychometric Description of Some Specific-Fear Questionnaires," Behavior Therapy, no. 5, 1974, pp. 401-409.
23. H.G. Hoffman et al., "Interfaces that Heal: Coupling Real and Virtual Objects to Treat Spider Phobia," to be published in Int'l J. Human-Computer Interaction.
24. D.R. Patterson, "Practical Applications of Psychological Techniques in Controlling Burn Pain," J. Burn Care Rehabilitation, vol. 13, no. 1, 1992, pp. 13-18.
25. S. Perry, G. Heidrich, and E. Ramos, "Assessment of Pain by Burn Patients," J. Burn Care Rehabilitation, vol. 2, 1981, pp. 322-327.
26. H.G. Hoffman et al., "The Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Based Pain Control with Multiple Treatments," Clinical Journal of Pain, vol. 17, no. 3, Sept. 2001, pp. 229-235.
27. A.C. Miller, L.C. Hickman, and G.K. Lemasters, "A Distraction Technique for Control of Burn Pain," J. Burn Care Rehabilitation, vol. 13, no. 5, Sept./Oct. 1992, pp. 576-580.
28. H.G. Hoffman et al., "Use of Virtual Reality for Adjunctive Treatment of Adolescent Burn Pain During Wound Care: A Case Report," Pain, vol. 85, no. 1-2, March 2000, pp. 305-309.
29. H.G. Hoffman, D.R. Patterson, and G.J. Carrougher, "Use of Virtual Reality for Adjunctive Treatment of Adult Burn Pain During Physical Therapy: A Controlled Study," Clinical J. Pain, vol. 16, no. 3, Sept. 2000, pp. 244-250.
30. H.G. Hoffman et al., "The Influence of Manipulating Presence on the Magnitude of Virtual Reality Analgesia," submitted for publication.
31. C.S. Parenteau et al., "Foot-Ankle Injuries: Influence of Crash Location, Seating Position and Age," Accident Analysis&Prevention, vol. 28, no. 5, 1996, pp. 607-17.
32. D. Hopper, B. Elliott, and J. Lalor, "A Descriptive Epidemiology of Netball Injuries during Competition: A Five Year Study," British J. Sports Medicine, vol. 29, no. 4, 1995, pp. 223-228.
33. J. Macintyre, "Foot and Ankle Injuries in Dance," Clinics in Sports Medicine, vol. 19, no. 2, 2000, pp. 351-368.
34. S.L. Jensen, "Epidemiology of Ankle Fractures: A Prospective Population-Based Study of 212 Cases in Aalborg, Denmark," Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, vol. 69, no. 1, 1998, pp. 48-50.
35. P. Kannus et al., "Epidemiology of Osteoporotic Ankle Fractures in Elderly Persons in Finland," Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 125, no. 12, 1996, pp. 975-978.
36. C.M. Court-Brown, J. McBirnie, and G. Wilson, "Adult Ankle Fractures—An Increasing Problem?," Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, vol. 69, no. 1, 1998, pp. 43-47.
37. J.P. Gerber et al., "Persistent Disability Associated with Ankle Sprains: A Prospective Examination of an Athletic Population," Foot&Ankle Int'l, vol. 19, no. 10, 1998, pp. 653-60.
38. Center for Telemedicine Law, Telemedicine Reimbursement Source Book, CTL, Washington, D.C., July 2000.
39. M.J. Girone et al., "Othopedic Rehabilitation Using the 'Rutgers Ankle' Interface," Proc. Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 2000, IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000, pp. 89-95.
40. J. Deutsch et al., "Rehabilitation of Musculoskeletal Injuries Using the Rutgers Ankle Haptic Interface: Three Case Reports," Proc. Eurohaptics 2001, Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, 2001, pp. 11-16.
41. M. Schenkman et al., "Multisystem Model for Management of Neurologically Impaired Adults—An Update and Illustrative Case," Neurology Report, vol. 24, no. 4, 1999, pp. 145-157.
42. J. Deutsch et al., "Post-Stroke Rehabilitation with the Rutgers Ankle System—A Case Study," Presence, MIT Press, vol. 10, no. 4, 2001, pp. 420-435.
43. M. Rosen, "Telerehabilitation," NeuroRehabilitation, vol. L, no. 12, 1999, pp. 11-26.
44. J. Jacobson et al., "Balance NAVE: A Virtual Reality Facility for Research and Rehabilitation of Balance Disorders," to be published in Proc. ACM Virtual Reality Systems and Technology, ACM Press, New York, 2001.
45. A.A. Rizzo et al., "The Virtual Classroom: A Virtual Reality Environment for the Assessment and Rehabilitation of Attention Deficits," CyberPsychology&Behavior, vol. 3, no. 3, 2000, pp. 483-501.
46. J.S. McGee et al., "Issues for the Assessment of Visuospatial Skills in Older Adults Using Virtual Environment Technology," CyberPsychology&Behavior, vol. 3, no. 3, 2000, pp. 469-483.
47. M. Schultheis et al., "Virtual Reality and Driving: The Road to Better Assessment for Cognitively Impaired Populations," to be published in Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (special issue on virtual environments and neuropsychology).
20 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool