The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.05 - September/October (2001 vol.21)
pp: 51-57
ABSTRACT
<p>Flat-screen 3D perspective view displays have been touted as promoting rapid appreciation of scenes. However, empirical support is mixed, and it seems likely that the results of some comparisons of 2D and 3D depend more on the details of the interfaces than on the inherent 2D or 3D format. They found that when we appropriately controlled availability and representation, visual search in 2D display formats was always faster than in 3D display formats.</p>
CITATION
Harvey S. Smallman, Mark St. John, Heather M. Oonk, Michael B. Cowen, "Information Availability in 2D and 3D Displays", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.21, no. 5, pp. 51-57, September/October 2001, doi:10.1109/38.946631
REFERENCES
1. M.T. Dennehy, D.W. Nesbitt, and R.A. Sumey, "Real-Time Three-Dimensional Graphics Display for Antiair Warfare Command and Control," Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Digest, vol. 15, no. 2, 1994, pp. 110-119.
2. A.R.L. Travis et al., "Time-Multiplexed Three-Dimensional Video Display," J. Soc. Information Display, vol. 3, no. 4, 1995, pp. 203-205.
3. M. St. John et al., "The Use of 2D and 3D Displays for Shape Understanding vs. Relative Position Tasks," Human Factors, vol. 43, no. 1, 2001, pp. 79-98.
4. H.S. Smallman et al., "When Beauty Is Only Skin Deep: 3D Realistic Icons Are Harder to Identify Than Conventional 2D Military Symbols," Proc. Human Factors Soc. 44th Ann. Meeting, Human Factors and Ergonomics Soc.,Santa Monica, Calif., 2000, pp. 480-483.
5. H.S. Smallman et al., Searching for Tracks Imaged as Symbols or Realistic Icons: A Comparison between Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Displays, tech. report 1854, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center (SPAWAR), San Diego, Calif., 2001, http://www.research.ibm.com/pietahttp:// www.spawar.navy.mil/sti/publications/pubs/ tr/1854tr1854.pdf.
6. I.D. Haskell and C.D. Wickens, "Two- and Three-Dimensional Displays for Aviation: A Theoretical and Empirical Comparison," Int'l J. Aviation Psychology, vol. 3, no. 1, 1993, pp. 87-109.
7. A.D. Andre and C.D. Wickens, "When Users Want What's Not Best for Them," Ergonomics in Design, 1995, pp. 10-14.
8. H.A. Sedgwick, "Space Perception," Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, Vol. 1, K.R. Boff, L. Kaufman, and J.P. Thomas, eds., Wiley, New York, 1986, pp. 2101-2157.
9. J.D. Baumann, S.I. Blanksteen, and M. Dennehy, "Recognition of Descending Aircraft in a Perspective Naval Combat Display," J. Virtual Environments, 1997, http://www.hitl.washington.edu/scivw/JOVE/ Articlesmdjbsb.html.
10. U.S. Dept. of Defense, MIL-STD-2525B Common Warfighting Symbology, tech. report, Washington, D.C., Dec. 1996, http://www-symbology.itsi.disa.mil/symbol mil-std.htm.
11. S.R. Ellis, M.W. McGreevy, and R. Hitchcock, "Perspective Traffic Display Format and Airline Pilot Traffic Avoidance," Human Factors, vol. 29, no. 4, 1987, pp. 371-382.
12. S.V. Bemis, J.L. Leeds, and E.A. Winer, "Operator Performance as a Function of Type of Display: Conventional Versus Perspective," Human Factors, vol. 30, no. 2, 1988, pp. 163-169.
13. A.D. Andre et al., "Display Formatting Techniques for Improving Situational Awareness in the Aircraft Cockpit," Int'l J. Aviation Psychology, vol. 1, no. 3, 1991, pp. 205-218.
14. M.S. Burnett and W. Barfield, "Perspective Versus Plan View Air Traffic Control Displays: Survey and Empirical Results," Proc. Hum. Factors Soc. 35th Ann. Meeting, Human Factors and Ergonomics Soc. (HFES), Santa Monica, Calif., 1991, pp. 86-91.
15. C.D. Wickens et al., "Electronic Maps for Terminal Area Navigation: Effects of Frame of Reference and Dimensionality," Int'l J. Aviation Psychology, vol. 6, no. 3, 1996, pp. 241-271.
16. H.S. Smallman, E. Schiller, and C.A. Mitchell, "Promoting Rapid Situation Awareness in Tactical Displays: The Role of 3D Perspective Views and Realistic Symbols," Proc. Hum. Factors 44th Ann. Meeting, Human Factors and Ergonomics Soc., Santa Monica (HFES), Calif., 2000, pp. 394-397.
40 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool