This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Watermarking 3D Objects for Verification
January/February 1999 (vol. 19 no. 1)
pp. 36-45
In this article, we introduce and investigate watermarking of 3D objects represented by polygonal models, and propose a new watermarking technique that enables the verification of 3D polygonal models for detecting unauthorized alterations. Our proposed technique consists of a watermark encoding process that embeds a sequence of data bits by perturbing coordinates of the vertices in a 3D model, and a watermark decoding process that extracts bit information from 3D geometry using secure verification keys.

1. R. Ohbuchi, H. Masuda, and M. Aono, "Watermarking Three-Dimensional Polygonal Models through Geometric and Topological Modifications," IEEE J. on Selected Areas in Comm., Vol. 16, No. 4, May 1998, pp. 551-560.
2. W.R. Bender, D. Gruhl, and N. Morimoto, "Techniques for Data Hiding," Proc. SPIE: Storage and Retrieval of Image and Video Databases, Vol. 2420, 1995, pp. 164-173.
3. I.J. Cox et al., Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia, Tech. Report TR-95-10, NEC Research Institute, Princeton, N.J., 1995.
4. N. Nikolaidis and I. Pitas, "Copyright Protection of Images using Robust Digital Signatures," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, IEEE Press, Piscataway, N.J., 1996.
5. R.G. van Schyndel, A.Z. Tirkel, and C.F. Osborne, "A Digital Watermark," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Image Processing, vol. 2, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994, pp. 86-90.
6. M. Swanson, B. Zhu, and A. Tewfik, "Transparent Robust Image Watermarking," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. on Image Processing, Vol. 3, 1996, pp. 211-214.
7. M.M. Yeung and F.C. Mintzer, "An Invisible Watermarking Technique for Image Verification," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Image Processing 1997, Vol. 2, Oct. 1997, pp. II.680-683.
8. J. Zhao and E. Koch, "Embedding Robust Labels into Images for Copyright Protection," Intellectual Property Rights and New Technologies, Proc. KnowRight95 Conf., 1995, pp. 241-251.
9. ISO/IEC 14772-1:1997, The Virtual Reality Modeling Language, 1997, /.
10. S. Craver, B.L. Yeo, and M.M. Yeung, "Digital Watermarking—Technical Trials and Legal Tribulations," Comm. ACM, Vol. 41, No. 7, July 1998, pp. 45-54.

Index Terms:
3D objects, polygonal models, VRML, content protection, authentication and verification, fragile watermarking, digital watermarks, data hiding, security
Boon-Lock Yeo, Minerva M. Yeung, "Watermarking 3D Objects for Verification," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 36-45, Jan.-Feb. 1999, doi:10.1109/38.736467
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.