This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Dynamically Simulated Characters in Virtual Environments
September-October 1998 (vol. 18 no. 5)
pp. 58-69
Animated characters can play the role of teachers or guides, teammates or competitors, or just provide a source of interesting motion in virtual environments. The characters in a compelling virtual environment must have a wide variety of complex and interesting behaviors and must be responsive to the user's actions. The difficulty of constructing such synthetic characters currently hinders the development of these environments, particularly when realism is required. We present one approach to populating virtual environments, using dynamic simulation to generate characters' motion. We explore the effectiveness of this approach with two virtual environments: the Border Collie Environment, in which the user acts as a border collie to herd robots into a corral, and the Olympic Bicycle Race Environment, in which the user participates in a bicycle race with synthetic competitors.

1. B. Blumberg and T. Galyean, “Multi-Level Direction of Autonomous Creatures for Real-Time Virtual Environments,” SIGGRAPH—Computer Graphics Proc., pp. 47-54, 1995.
2. K. Perlin and A. Goldberg, "Improv: A System for Scripting Interactive Actors in Virtual Worlds," Proc. Siggraph 96, ACM Press, New York, 1996, pp. 205-216.
3. J.P. Granieri, W. Becket, B.D. Reich, J. Crabtree, and N.I. Badler, “Behavioral Control for Real-Time Simulated Human Agents,” Proc. 1995 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 173-180, Monterey, Calif., Apr. 1995.
4. S.R. Musse and D. Thalmann, "A Model of Human Crowd Behavior," Computer Animation and Simulation 97, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 1996, pp. 39-51.
5. T. Capin et al., "Virtual Human Representation and Communication in the VLNet Networked Virtual Environments," IEEE CG&A, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1997, pp. 42-53.
6. C. Reynolds, “Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A Distributed Behavioral Model,” Proc. SIGGRAPH 1987, Computer Graphics, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 25-34, 1987.
7. D. Brogan and J. Hodgins, “Group Behaviours for Systems with Significant Dynamics,” Autonomous Robots, vol. 4, pp. 137-153, 1997.
8. X. Tu and D. Terzopoulos, "Artificial Fishes: Physics, Locomotion, Perception, Behavior," Proc. Siggraph 94, ACM, New York, July 1994, pp. 43-50.
9. Q. Yu and D. Terzopoulos, "Synthetic Motion Capture For Interactive Virtual Worlds," Proc. Computer Animation, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998, pp. 2-10.
10. H. Distler and H.H. Bülthoff, "Psychophysical Experiments and Virtual Environments," Virtual Reality World 96, Computerwoche Verlag AG, München, Germany, 1996.
11. J.R. Ensor and G.U. Carraro, "Peloton: A VRML-based Bicycling Simulator," Visual Proc. Siggraph 97, ACM Press, New York, 1997, p. 198.
12. R. Waters et al., "Diamond Park and Spline: Social Virtual Reality with 3D Animation, Spoken Interaction, and Runtime Extendability," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Vol. 6, No. 4, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., August 1997, pp. 461-481.
13. M.R. Macedonia, D.P. Brutzman, M.J. Zyda, D.R. Pratt, P.T. Barham, J. Falby, and J. Locke, “NPSNET: A Multi-Player 3D Virtual Environment over the Internet,” Proc. ACM Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics, Apr. 1995.
14. M.H. Raibert, "Legged Robots that Balance," The Massachusetts Inst. of Technology Press Series in Artificial Intelligence, 1986.
15. A. Singla, U. Ramachandran, and J. Hodgins, "Temporal Notions of Synchronization and Consistency in Beehive," Proc. 9th ACM Symp. Parallel Algorithms and Architectures, ACM Press, New York, 1997.
16. J.K. Hodgins et al., "Animating Human Athletics," Proc. Siggraph 95, ACM, New York, Aug. 1995, pp. 71-78.
17. E.R. Burke, Serious Cycling, Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill., 1995, pp. 192-200.

Citation:
David C. Brogan, Ronald A. Metoyer, Jessica K. Hodgins, "Dynamically Simulated Characters in Virtual Environments," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 58-69, Sept.-Oct. 1998, doi:10.1109/38.708561
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.