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Verbs and Adverbs: Multidimensional Motion Interpolation
September-October 1998 (vol. 18 no. 5)
pp. 32-40
This article describes methods and data structures used to leverage motion sequences of complex linked figures. We present a technique for interpolating between example motions derived from live motion capture or produced through traditional animation tools. These motions can be characterized by emotional expressiveness or control behaviors such as turning or going uphill. We call such parameterized motions "verbs" and the parameters that control them "adverbs." Verbs can be combined with other verbs to form a "verb graph," with smooth transitions between them, allowing an animated figure to exhibit a substantial repertoire of expressive behaviors. A combination of radial basis functions and low-order polynomials creates the interpolation space between example motions. Inverse kinematic constraints augment the interpolations in order to avoid, for example, the feet slipping on the floor during a support phase of a walk cycle.

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Charles Rose, Michael F. Cohen, Bobby Bodenheimer, "Verbs and Adverbs: Multidimensional Motion Interpolation," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 32-40, Sept.-Oct. 1998, doi:10.1109/38.708559
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