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Visualizing 3D Flow
July-August 1998 (vol. 18 no. 4)
pp. 49-53
Line integral convolution (LIC) is an elegant and versatile technique for representing directional information via patterns of correlation in a texture. In this article we discuss some of the factors that may underlie the perceptual difficulties that we can encounter with dense 3D displays and describe strategies for more effectively visualizing 3D flow with volume LIC. Specifically, we suggest techniques for selectively emphasizing critical regions of interest in a flow, for facilitating the accurate perception of the 3D depth and orientation of overlapping streamlines, for efficiently incorporating an indication of orientation into a flow representation, and for conveying additional information about related scalar quantities such as temperature or vorticity over a flow via subtle, continuous line width and color variations.

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Victoria Interrante, Chester Grosch, "Visualizing 3D Flow," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 49-53, July-Aug. 1998, doi:10.1109/38.689664
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