The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.04 - July-August (1998 vol.18)
pp: 18-23
Graphs have a very natural visual representation as nodes and connecting links arranged in space. Although many examples show the computational manipulation of large data sets that can be expressed in graph form, visual representations of them as graphs are not common. Current tools are inadequate for the job: conventional systems are often challenged by hundreds of edges, and none can handle more than a few thousand edges. However, nonvisual manipulation of graphs with 50,000 edges is commonplace, and much larger instances exist. A graph drawing system that focuses on the interactive browsing of large graphs can be targeted for the quite different tasks of browsing and exploration. Many researchers in scientific visualization have recognized the split between explanatory and exploratory goals. This distinction is equally relevant for graph drawing.
Tamara Munzner, "Exploring Large Graphs in 3D Hyperbolic Space", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.18, no. 4, pp. 18-23, July-August 1998, doi:10.1109/38.689657
1. F.J. Brandenburg, "Nice Drawing of Graphs are Computationally Hard," in Visualization in Human-Computer Interaction, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 439, P. Gorney and M.J. Tauber, eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988, pp. 1-15.
2. G. DiBattista, P. Eades, R. Tamassia, and I.G. Tollis, "Algorithms for Drawing Graphs: An Annotated Bibliography," Computational Geometry: Theory and Applications, vol. 4, no 5, pp. 235-282, 1994. Also available via anonymous ftp from,, andin.
3. T. Munzner, "H3: Laying out Large Directed Graphs in 3D Hyperbolic Space," Proc. 1997 IEEE Symp. on Interactive 3D Graphics, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1997, pp. 2-10.
4. I. Bruss and A. Frick, "Fast Interactive 3D Graph Visualization," Proc. Graph Drawing 95, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1027, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995, pp. 99-110.
5. G.G. Robertson, J.D. Mackinlay, and S.K. Card, "Cone Trees: Animated 3D Visualizations of Hierarchical Information," Proc. ACM Conf. Human Factors in Computer Systems (CHI 91), ACM Press, 1991, pp. 189-194.
6. J.H. Conway and N.J.A. Sloane, Sphere Packings, Lattices, and Groups, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988.
7. G.E. Martin, The Foundations of Geometry and the Non-Euclidean Plane, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975.
8. M. Phillips and C. Gunn, "Visualizing Hyperbolic Space: Unusual Uses of 4x4 Matrices," Proc. 1992 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics, ACM Press, New York, 1992, pp. 209-214.
9. J. Lamping, R. Rao, and P. Pirolli, “A Focus + Context Technique Based on Hyperbolic Geometry for Visualizing Large Hierarchies,” Proc. Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI '95 Conf., pp. 401-408, 1995.
10. T. Munzner and P. Burchard, “Visualizing the Structure of the World Wide Web in 3D Hyperbolic Space,” Proc. VRML '95 Symp., pp. 33-38, 1995.
11. M.S.T. Carpendale, D.J. Cowperthwaite, and F.D. Fracchia, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, special issue on information visualization, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 42-51, July 1997.
16 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool