The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.03 - May-June (1997 vol.17)
pp: 22-30
ABSTRACT
Applying anatomical and physiological principles to model and animate animals achieves greater realism. Underlying components represent bones, muscles, and soft tissue; for speed and simplicity, we can model these from ellipsoids. Muscles stretch across joints, and their orientations, sizes, and shapes change during joint motion. A polygonal skin is automatically generated from the underlying structures. The skin mesh adjusts itself to changes in position under the influence of neighboring skin points and connections to the underlying anatomy. Much of the process is automated but under the control of user-defined parameters. Manipulation and animation of these models occur at comfortable interactive speeds on graphics workstations.
INDEX TERMS
computer graphics, computer animation, computer modeling, animal and skin modeling.
CITATION
Jane Wilhelms, "Animals with Anatomy", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.17, no. 3, pp. 22-30, May-June 1997, doi:10.1109/38.586015
REFERENCES
1. N.I. Badler, C.B. Phillips, and B.L. Webber, Simulating Humans: Computer Graphics Animation and Control, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.
2. Y. Lee, D. Terzopoulos, and K. Waters, "Constructing Physics-Based Facial Models of Individuals," Proc. Graphics Interactive 93, Canadian Human-Computer Communications Society, Toronto, 1993, pp. 1-8.
3. D. Terzopoulos and K. Waters, "Physically Based Facial Modeling, Analysis, and Animation," J. Visualization and Computer Animation, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1990, pp. 73-80.
4. P. Carpenter, "Commercial Spot Cola Bears," Cinefex Magazine, Dec. 1994.
5. D. Shay and J. Duncan, The Making of Jurassic Park, Ballantine Books, New York, 1993.
6. J.E. Chadwick,D.R. Haumann,, and R.E. Parent,“Layered construction for deformable animated characters,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’89 Proceedings), vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 243-252, 1989.
7. M. Henne, A Constraint-Based Skin Model for Human Figure Animation, master's thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz, June 1990.
8. Making Them Move, N. Badler, B. Barsky, and D. Zeltzer, eds., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, Calif., 1991.
9. J.P. Gourret, N. Magnenat-Thalmann, and D. Thalmann, “Simulation of Object and Human Skin Deformations in a Grasping Task,” Computer Graphics, vol. 23, pp. 21-30, 1989.
10. N. Magnenat Thalmann and D. Thalmann, "Human Body Deformations Using Joint-Dependent Local Operators and Finite Element Theory," in Making Them Move, N. Badler, B. Barsky, and D. Zeltzer, eds., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, Calif., 1991, pp. 243-262.
11. D.T. Chen and D. Zeltzer, “Pump It Up: Computer Animation of a Biomechanically Based Model of Muscle Using the Finite Element Method,” Computer Graphics, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 89-98, 1992.
12. P. Ning and J. Bloomenthal, "An Evaluation of Implicit Surface Tilers," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 13, No. 6, Nov. 1993, pp. 33-41.
13. J.F. Blinn,“A generalization of algebraic surface drawing,” ACM Trans. on Graphics, vol.1, no.3, pp. 235-256, 1982.
14. W.E. Lorensen and H.E. Cline, “Marching Cubes: A High Resolution 3D Surface Construction Algorithm,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '87 Proc.), vol. 21, pp. 163-169, 1987.
15. S. Wang and A. Kaufman, "Volume-Sampled 3D Modeling," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 14, No. 5, 1994, pp. 26-32.
43 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool