This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Virtually Conquering Fear of Flying
November 1996 (vol. 16 no. 6)
pp. 42-49
Fear of flying is a serious problem that affects millions of individuals. Exposure therapy for fear of flying is an effective therapy technique but is also expensive, is logistically difficult to arrange, and presents significant problems of patient confidentiality and potential embarrassment. We have developed a virtual airplane that represents a potential solution to many current problems of fear of flying exposure therapy. This article describes the design of the virtual airplane and presents a case report on its use.

1. R.J. Roberts, "Passenger Fear of Flying: Behavioural Treatment with Extensive In Vivo Exposure and Group Support," Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 60, 1989, pp. 342-348.
2. R.M. Doctor, C. McVarish, and R.P. Boone, "Long-term Behavioral Treatment Effects for the Fear of Flying," Phobic Practice and Research, Vol. 3, 1990, pp. 33-42.
3. C.P. Walder et al., "Psychological Intervention in Civilian Flying Phobia: Evaluation and a Three-year Follow-up," British J. of Psychiatry, Vol. 151, 1987, pp. 494-498.
4. L.F. Hodges et al., "Virtual Environments for Treating the Fear of Heights," Computer, vol. 28, no. 7, July 1995, pp. 27-34.
5. B.O. Rothbaum et al., "Effectiveness of Computer-generated (Virtual Reality) Graded Exposure in the Treatment of Acrophobia," American J. of Psychiatry, Vol. 152, No. 4, 1995, pp. 626-628.
6. J. Verlinden, D. Kessler, and L. Hodges, The Simple Virtual Environment (SVE) Library: User's Guide, Tech. Report GVU-93-24, Graphics, Visualization, and Usability Center, Georgia Inst. Tech nology, Atlanta, Ga., 1993.
7. W.A. Howard, S.M. Murphy, and J.C. Clarke, "The Nature and Treatment of Fear of Flying: A Controlled Investigation," Behavior Therapy, Vol. 14, 1983, pp. 557-567.
8. W. Scott, "A Fear of Flying Inventory," Innovations of Clinical Practice, P. Kellar and S. Hayman, eds., Professional Resource Exchange, Florida, Vol. 7, 1987.
9. A.G. Forgione and F.M. Baur, Fearless Flying: The Complete Program for Relaxed Air Travel, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Mass., 1980.
10. W. Guy, ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmachology, Revised, NIMH Publ., pp. 217-222., DHEW Publ No (Adm) 1976, 76-338.
11. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, 1994,Washington, D.C.
12. T. Sheridan, “Musings on Telepresence and Virtual Presence,” Presence, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992, pp. 120-126.
13. E.B. Foa, E. Steketee, and B.O. Rothbaum, "Behavior/Cognitive Conceptualizations of Post-tramatic Stress Disorder," Behavior Therapy, Vol. 20, 1989, p. 155.

Index Terms:
virtual reality, virtual environments, exposure therapy, fear of flying
Citation:
Larry F. Hodges, Benjamin A. Watson, G. Drew Kessler, Barbara O. Rothbaum, Dan Opdyke, "Virtually Conquering Fear of Flying," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 42-49, Nov. 1996, doi:10.1109/38.544071
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.