The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.02 - March (1996 vol.16)
pp: 50-59
ABSTRACT
We present an efficient technique that animates human locomotion using balance and comfort control based on inverse dynamics and strength data. Loads or 3D external forces can be applied to any body point. Inverse dynamics using the Newton-Euler method is applied to a 97 DOF human model to compute the joint forces and torques in real time. Balance is maintained by rotating or translating the pelvis and torso. The required torque at each joint is kept below a given fraction of the available torque based on actual human strength data. This "comfort" control adjusts the knee angle or the figure base parameters such as the step length and foot angle. The combination of balance and comfort controls ensures that dynamically sound walking motion is created in each frame. Several visualization techniques are applied to validate and display the result of the dynamics computation, such as the degree of imbalance, the ground reaction force on the foot sole, and the required versus available joint torques. The algorithm also encompasses any walking gait, any figure scale, and any motion path.
INDEX TERMS
animation, simulating humans, inverse dynamics computation, human locomotion
CITATION
Hyeongseok Ko, Norman I. Badler, "Animating Human Locomotion with Inverse Dynamics", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.16, no. 2, pp. 50-59, March 1996, doi:10.1109/38.486680
REFERENCES
1. R. Boulic, N. Magnenat-Thalmann, and D. Thalmann, "A Global Human Walking Model with Real-Time Kinematic Personification," The Visual Computer, Vol. 6, No. 6, 1990, pp. 344-358.
2. H. Ko and N.I. Badler, "Straight-Line Walking Animation Based on Kinematic Generalization that Preserves the Original Characteristics," Proc. of Graphics Interface 93, Morgan-Kaufman, San Francisco, 1993, pp. 9-16.
3. H. Ko, Kinematic and Dynamic Techniques for Analyzing, Predicting, and Animating Human Locomotion, doctoral dissertation, MS-CIS-94-31, Univ. of Pennsylvania,Dept. of Computer and Information Science, Philadelphia, Penn., 1994.
4. N.I. Badler, C.B. Phillips, and B.L. Webber, Simulating Humans: Computer Graphics and Animation and Control, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1993.
5. A. Bruderlin and T.W. Calvert, "Goal-Directed, Dynamic Animation of Human Walking," Computer Graphics (Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 23, No. 3, July 1989, pp. 233-242.
6. M. Girard, "Interactive Design of 3D Computer-Animated Legged Animal Motion," IEEE CG&A, Vol. 7, No. 6, Jun. 1987, pp. 39-51.
7. S. Kajita, K. Tani, and A. Kobayashi, "Dynamic Walk Control of a Biped Robot Along the Potential Energy-Conserving Orbit," Proc. IEEE Int'l Workshop on Intelligent Robotics and Systems, IEEE, New York, 1990, pp. 789-794.
8. J.J. Craig, Introduction to Robotics, Mechanics, and Control, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1989.
9. V.R. Kumar and K.J. Waldron, "Force Distribution in Closed Kinematic Chains," IEEE J. Robotics and Automation, Vol.4, No. 6, 1988, pp. 657-664.
10. M. Vukobratovic, Biped Locomotion, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990.
11. A.K. Pandya et al., "The Validation of a Human Force Model to Predict Dynamic Forces Resulting form Multijoint Motions," Tech. Report 3206, NASA, Houston, Texas, June 1992.
12. P. Lee et al., "Strength Guided Motion," Computer Graphics (Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 1990, pp. 253-262.
15 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool