This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
NURBS-Based Free-Form Deformations
November/December 1994 (vol. 14 no. 6)
pp. 59-65

Since the advent of computer-based geometric modeling, designers have tried to develop modeling and deformation tools that allow users to emulate the ease with which sculptors work with clay. T.W. Sederberg and S.R. Parry (1986) demonstrated the application of free-form deformations. FFDs let the user conceptually embed an object in a clear pliable solid and apply deformations to the solid, which then carry through to the encased object. We describe a technique that logically extends current FFDs by basing them on nonuniform rational B-splines. The resulting NURBS-based FFDs (NFFDs) offer flexibility and control not achieved in prior implementations. We conclude by describing a straightforward combination of this technique with global and local deformations of solid primitives used to animate a lifelike surface model of the human leg.

1. A.H. Barr, "Global and Local Deformations of Solid Primitives,"Computer Graphics, Vol. 18, No. 3, July 1984, pp. 21-30.
2. T.W. Sederberg and S.R. Parry, "Free-Form Deformation of Solid Geometric Models,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 20, No. 4, Aug. 1986, pp. 151-160.
3. O.R. Davis and R.P. Burton, "Free-Form Deformation as an Interactive Modeling Tool,"J. Imaging Technology, Vol. 17, No. 4, Aug./Sept. 1991, pp. 181-187.
4. S. Coquillart, "Extended Free-Form Deformation: A Sculpturing Tool for 3D Geometric Modeling,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 1990, pp. 187-196.
5. J. Griessmair and W. Purgathofer, "Deformation of Solids with Trivariate B-Splines,"Proc. Eurographics 89, Elsevier Science Publishers, North-Holland, 1989, pp. 137-148.
6. W. Hsu, J. Hughes, H. Kaufman, "Direct Manipulation of Free-form Deformations,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 26, No. 2, July 1992, pp. 177-184.
7. N. Magnenat-Thalmann and D. Thalmann,Synthetic Actors in Computer-Generated Films, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1990.
8. K. Waters, "A Muscle Model for Animating Three-Dimensional Facial Expression,"Computer Graphics, Vol. 21, No. 4, July 1987, pp. 17-24.
9. M. Nahas, H. Huitric, and M. Saintourens, "Animation of a B-Spline Figure,"The Visual Computer, Vol. 3, No. 5, Mar. 1988, pp. 272-276.
10. K. Komatsu, "Human Skin Model Capable of Natural Shape Variation,"The Visual Computer, Vol. 3, No. 5, Mar. 1988, pp. 265-271.
11. J.E. Chadwick, D.R. Haumann, R.E. Parent, "Layered Construction for Deformable Animated Characters,"Computer Graphics, Vol. 23, No. 3, July 1989, pp. 243-252.

Citation:
Henry J. Lamousin, Warren N. Waggenspack Jr., "NURBS-Based Free-Form Deformations," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 59-65, Nov.-Dec. 1994, doi:10.1109/38.329096
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.