The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.06 - November/December (1990 vol.10)
pp: 13-32
ABSTRACT
<p>The various types of shadows are characterized. Most existing shadow algorithms are described, and their complexities, advantages, and shortcomings are discussed. Hard shadows, soft shadows, shadows of transparent objects, and shadows for complex modeling primitives are considered. For each type, shadow algorithms within various rendering techniques are examined. The aim is to provide readers with enough background and insight on the various methods to allow them to choose the algorithm best suited to their needs and to help identify the areas that need more research and point to possible solutions.</p>
CITATION
Andrew Woo, Pierre Poulin, Alain Fournier, "A Survey of Shadow Algorithms", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.10, no. 6, pp. 13-32, November/December 1990, doi:10.1109/38.62693
REFERENCES
1. F.C. Crow, "Shadow Algorithms for Computer Graphics,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 11, No. 2, July 1977, pp. 242-248.
2. J. Amanatides, "Realism in Computer Graphics: A Survey,"IEEE CG&A, Vol. 7. No. 1, Jan. 1987, pp. 44-56.
3. N. Thalmann and D. Thalmann,Image Synthesis, Theory and Practice, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987, pp. 156-169.
4. Foley, J.D., et al.,Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1990.
5. D. Warn, "Lighting Controls for Synthetic Images,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 17, No. 3, 1983, pp. 13-21.
6. T. Nishita, T. Okamura, and E. Nakamae, "Shading Models for Point and Linear Sources,"ACM Trans. Graphics, Vol. 4, No. 2, Apr. 1985, pp. 124-146.
7. J. Blinn, "Jim Blinn's Corner: Me and My (Fake) Shadow,"IEEE CG&A, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan. 1988, pp. 82-86.
8. A. Appel, "Some Techniques for Shading Machine Renderings of Solids,"Proc. AFIPS JSCC, Vol. 32, 1968, pp. 37-45.
9. W. Bouknight and K. Kelley, "An Algorithm for Producing Half-Tone Computer Graphics Presentations Shadows and Movable Light Sources,"AFIPS Conf Proc., Vol. 36, 197O. pp. 1-10.
10. L. Brotman and N. Badler, "Generating Soft Shadows with a Depth Buffer Algorithm,"IEEE CG&A, Vol. 4, No. 10, Oct. 1984, pp. 71-81.
11. H. Fuchs et al., "Fast Spheres, Shadows, Textures, Transparencies and Image Enhancement in Pixel-Planes,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 19, No. 3, July 1985, pp. 111-120.
12. P. Bergeron, "A General Version of Crow's Shadow Volumes,"IEEE CG&A, Vol. 6, No. 9, Sept. 1986, pp. 17-28.
13. N. Max, "Atmospheric Illumination and Shadows,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Aug. 1986, pp. 117-124.
14. A. Fournier and D. Fussell, "On the Power of the Frame Buffer,"ACM Trans. Graphics, Vol. 7, No. 2, Apr. 1988, pp. 102-128.
15. N. Chin and S. Feiner, "Near Real-Time Shadow Generation Using BSP Trees," Computer Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 23, No. 3, July 1989, pp. 99-106.
16. D. Eo and C. Kyung, "Hybrid Shadow Testing Scheme for Ray Tracing,"Computer Aided Design, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan. 1989, pp. 38-48.
17. A. Woo and J. Amanatides, "Voxel Occlusion Testing: A Shadow Determination Accelerator for Ray Tracing,"Graphics Interface 90, May 1990, pp. 213-220.
18. F. Jansen and A. van der Zalm, "A Shadow Algorithm for CSG,"Eurographics 90, Aug. 1990, pp. 51-61.
19. T. Nishita and E. Nakamae, "An Algorithm for Half-Tone Representation of Three-Dimensional Objects,"Information Processing in Japan, Vol. 14, 1974, pp. 93-99.
20. P. Atherton, K. Weiler, and D. Greenberg, "Polygon Shadow Generation,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 12, No. 3, Aug. 1978, pp. 275-281.
21. L. Williams, "Casting Curved Shadows on Curved Surfaces,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 12, No. 3, Aug. 1978, pp. 270-274.
22. J. Hourcade and A. Nicolas, "Algorithms for Antialiased Cast Shadows,"Computer and Graphics, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1985, pp. 259-265.
23. W. Reeves, D. Salesin, and R. Cook, "Rendering Antialiased Shadows with Depth Maps,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 21, No. 4, July 1987, pp. 283-291.
24. W. T. Reeves and R. Blau, "Approximate and probabilistic algorithms for shading and rendering structured particle systems,"SIGGRAPH 85, Comput. Graphics, vol. 19, pp. 313-322, July 1985.
25. G.S.P. Miller, "The Definition and Rendering of Terrain Maps,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 20, No. 4, Aug. 1986, pp. 39-48.
26. P. Robertson, "Spatial Transformations for Rapid Scan-Line Surface Shadowing,"IEEE CG&A, Vol. 9, No. 2, March 1989, pp. 30-38.
27. R. Goldstein and R. Nagel, "3-D Visual Simulation,"Simulation, Jan. 1971, pp. 25-31.
28. T. Whitted, "An Improved Illumination Model for Shaded Display,"Comm. ACM, Vol. 23, No. 6, June 1980, pp. 343- 349.
29. J. Amanatides and D. Mitchell, "Some Regularization Problems in Ray Tracing,"Graphics Interface 90, May 1990, pp. 221-228.
30. S.M. Rubin and T. Whitted, "A 3-D Representation for Fast Rendering of Complex Scenes,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 14, No. 3, July 1980, pp. 110-116.
31. T. Kay and J.T. Kajiya, "Ray Tracing Complex Scenes,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), July 1986, pp. 269-278.
32. J. Goldsmith and J. Salmon, "Automatic Creation of Object Hierarchies for Ray Tracing,"CG&A, May 1987, pp. 14-20.
33. A. Glassner, "Spacetime Ray Tracing for Animation,"IEEE CG&A, Vol. 8, No. 2, March 1966, pp. 60-70.
34. A. Glassner, "Space Subdivision for Fast Ray Tracing,"IEEE CG&A, Vol. 4, No.10, Oct. 1984, pp. 15-22.
35. M. Kaplan, "Space Tracing: A Constant Time Ray Tracer," Tutorial Notes on the State of the Art in Image Synthesis, SIGGRAPH 85, July 1965, pp. 149-158.
36. A. Fujimoto, T. Tanaka, and K. Iawata, "ARTS: Accelerated Ray Tracing System,"IEEE CG&A, Vol. 6, No. 4, April 1986, pp. 16-26.
37. J. Amanatides and A. Woo, "A Fast Voxel Traversal Algorithm for Ray Tracing,"Eurographics 87, Aug. 1987, pp. 1-10.
38. J.M. Snyder and A.H. Barr, "Ray Tracing Complex Models Containing Surface Tessellations,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), July 1987, pp. 119-128.
39. J. Cleary and G. Wyvill, "Analysis of an Algorithm for Fast Ray Tracing Using Uniform Space Subdivision,"Visual Computer, July 1988, pp. 65-83.
40. O. Devillers, "The Macro-regions: An Efficient Space Division Structure for Ray Tracing," Tech. Report of the Computer Science Laboratory of Ecole Normale Superieure (LIENS), Paris, Nov. 1988.
41. D. Jevans and B. Wyvill, "Adaptive Voxel Subdivision for Ray Tracing,"Graphics Interface 89, June 1989, pp. 164-172.
42. J. Arvo and D. Kirk, "Fast Ray Tracing by Ray Classification,Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), July 1987, pp. 55-64.
43. P. Heckbert and P. Hanrahan, "Beam Tracing Polygonal Objects,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 18, No. 3, July 1984, pp. 119-127.
44. P. Hanrahan, "Using Caching and Breadth First Search to Speed Up Ray Tracing,"Proc. Graphics Interface 86 and Vision Interface 86, Canadian Information Processing Soc., Toronto, 1986, pp. 56-61.
45. L.R. Speer, T.D. DeRose, and B.A. Barsky, "A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of Coherent Ray-Tracing,"Graphics Interface 85, N. Magnenat-Thalmann and D. Thalmann, eds., Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, May 1985, pp. 11-25.
46. M. Ohta and M. Maekawa, "Ray Coherence Theorem and Constant Time Ray Tracing Algorithm,"Computer Graphics(Tokyo), 1987, pp. 303-314.
47. E. Haines and D. Greenberg, "The Light Buffer: A Shadow-Testing Accelerator,"IEEE CG&A, Vol. 6, No. 9, Sept. 1986, pp. 6-16.
48. D. Salesin and J. Stolfi, "Rendering CSG Models with a zz-Buffer,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 1990, pp. 67-76.
49. G. Fossum and D. Fussell, "Generating Soft Shadows Efficiently," Technical Report 78712-1188, Dept. of Computer Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, June 1987.
50. P. Poulin and J. Amanatides, "Shading and Shadowing with Linear Light Sources,"Eurographics 90, Aug. 1990, pp. 377-386.
51. C. Verbeck and D. Greenberg, "A Comprehensive Light Source Description for Computer Graphics,"IEEE CG&A, Vol. 4, No. 7, July 1984, pp. 66-75.
52. M.F. Cohen and D.P. Greenberg, "The hemi-cube: A radiosity solution for complex environments," inProc. SIGGRAPH '85, 1985, pp. 31-40.
53. T. Nishita and E. Nakamae. "Continuous Tone Representation of Three-Dimensional Objects Taking Account of Shadows and Interreflections."Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 19, No. 3, July 1985, pp. 23-30.
54. S. Chattopadhyay and A. Fujimoto, "Bidirectional Ray Tracing,"Computer Graphics 1987, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987, pp. 335-343.
55. P. Haeberli and K. Akeley, "The Accumulation Buffer: Hard-ware Support for High-Quality Rendering,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 1990, pp. 309-318.
56. R.L. Cook, T. Porter, and L. Carpenter, "Distributed Ray Tracing,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), July 1984, pp. 137-145.
57. M.A.Z. Dippe and E.H. Wold, "Antialiasing Through Stochastic Sampling,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 19, No. 3, July 1985, pp. 69-78.
58. M.E. Lee, R.A. Redner, and S.P. Uselton, "Statistically Optimized Sampling for Distributed Ray Tracing,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), July 1985, pp. 61-67.
59. R. Cook, "Stochastic Sampling in Computer Graphics,"ACM Trans. Graphics, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan. 1986, pp. 51-72.
60. C. Bouville et al., "Monte-Carlo Integration Applied to an Illumination Model,"Eurographics 88, Aug. 1988, pp. 483-498.
61. J. Amanatides, "Ray Tracing with Cones,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 18, No. 3, July 1984, pp. 129-135.
62. C. M. Goral, K. E. Torrance, D. P. Greenberg, and B. Battaile, "Modeling the interaction of light between diffuse surfaces," inProc. SIGGRAPH '84, 1984, pp. 213-222.
63. A.T. Campbell III and D.S. Fussell, "Adaptive Mesh Generation for Global Diffuse Illumination,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 24. No. 4, Aug. 1990, pp. 155-164.
64. J. R. Wallace, K. A. Elmquist, and E. A. Haines, "A ray tracing algorithm for progressive radiosity," inProc. SIGGRAPH '89, 1989, pp. 315-324.
65. T. Nishita and E. Nakamae, "Continuous Tone Representation of Three-Dimensional Objects Illuminated by Skylight,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 20, No. 4, Aug. 1986, pp. 125-132.
66. R. Hall and D. Greenberg, "A Testbed for Realistic Image Synthesis,"IEEE CG&A, Vol. 3, No. 8, Nov. 1983, pp. 10-20.
67. A. Pearce, "Shadow Attenuation for Ray Tracing Transparent Objects, " inGraphics Gems, A. Glassner, ed., Academic Press, Cambridge, Mass., Aug. 1990, pp.397-399.
68. J. Arvo, "Backward Ray Tracing," Tutorial Notes on the Developments in Ray Tracing, SIGGRAPH 86, August 1986.
69. G. Ward, R. Rubinstein, and R. Clear, "A Ray Tracing Solution for Diffuse Inter-reflection,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 22, No. 4, Aug. 1988, pp. 85-92.
70. P. Shirley, "A Ray Tracing Method for Illumination Calculation in Diffuse-Specular Scenes,"Graphics Interface 90, May 1990, pp. 205-212.
71. P. Heckbert, "Adaptive Radiosity Textures for Bidirectional Ray Tracing,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 1990, pp. 145-154.
72. M. Watt, "Light-Water Interaction Using Backward Beam Tracing,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 1990, pp. 377-385.
73. M. Inakage, "Caustics and Specular Reflection Models for Spherical Objects and Lens,"The Visual Computer, Vol. 2, No. 6, Feb. 1986, pp. 279-383.
74. M. Shinya, T. Takahashi, and S. Naito, "Principles and Applications of Pencil Tracing,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 21, No. 4, July 1987, pp. 45-54.
75. M. Shinya, T. Saito, and T. Takahashi, "Rendering Techniques for Transparent Objects,"Graphics Interface 89, June 1989, pp. 173-182.
76. J.T. Kajiya, "The Rendering Equation,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 20, No. 4, Aug. 1986, pp. 143-150.
77. A. Fournier et al., "FIAT Lux: Light Driven Global Illumination," DGP Technical Memo DGP89-1, Dynamic Graphics Project, University of Toronto, 1989.
78. J.F. Blinn, "A Generalization of Algebraic Surface Drawing,"ACM Trans. Graphics, Vol. 1, No. 3, July 1982, pp. 235-256.
79. P. Hanrahan, "Ray Tracing Algebraic Surfaces,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 17, No. 3, July 1983, pp. 83-90.
80. D. Kalra and A. Barr, "Guaranteed Ray Intersection with Implicit Surfaces,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 22, No. 4, July 1989, pp. 297-306.
81. D. Mitchell, "Robust Ray Intersection with Interval Arithmetic,"Graphics Interface 90, May 1990, pp. 68-74.
82. J. Kajiya, "Ray Tracing Parametric Patches,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 16, No. 3, July 1982, pp. 245-254.
83. T. Nishita, T. Sederberg, and M. Kakimoto, "Ray Tracing Trimmed Rational Surface Patches,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 1990, pp. 337-345.
84. M. Sweeney and R. Bartels, "Ray Tracing Free-Form B-Spline Surfaces,"IEEE CG&A, Vol. 6, No. 2, Feb. 1986, pp. 41-49.
85. D. Toth, "On Ray Tracing Parametric Surfaces,"Computer Graphics(Proc.SIGGRAPH), Vol.19, No.3, July 1985, pp. 171-179.
86. A. Fournier and J. Buchanan, "Chebyshev Polynomials for Boxing and Intersections of Parametric Curves and Surfaces," Technical Memo Imager 90-1, Imager, University of British Columbia, 1990.
87. N. Max, "Smooth Appearance for Polygonal Surfaces,"The Visual Computer, Vol. 4, 1989, pp. 160-173.
88. J.F. Blinn, "Simulation of Wrinkled Surfaces,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 12, No. 3, Aug. 1978, pp. 286-292.
89. N. Max, "Horizon Mapping: Shadows for Bump-Mapped Surfaces,"The Visual Computer, Vol. 4, 1988, pp. 109-117.
90. K. Torrance and E. Sparrow, "Theory for Off-Specular Reflection from Roughened Surfaces,"J. Optical Society of America, Vol. 57, No. 9, 1967.
91. J. Blinn, "Models of Light Reflection for Computer Synthesized Pictures,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 11, No. 2, July 1977, pp. 192-198.
92. P. Poulin and A. Fournier, "A Model for Anisotropic Reflection,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 1990, pp. 273-282.
93. B. Cabral, N. Max, and R. Springmeyer, "Bidirectional Reflection Functions from Surface Bump Maps,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 21, No. 4, July 1987, pp. 273-281.
94. W. Reeves, "Particle Systems--A Technique for Modeling a Class of Fuzzy Objects,"ACM Trans. Graphics, Vol. 2, No. 2., Apr. 1983, pp. 91-108.
95. K. Sims, "Particle Animation and Rendering Using Data Parallel Computation,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 1990, pp. 405-413.
96. J. Blinn, "Light Reflection Functions for Simulation of Clouds and Dusty Surfaces,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), vol. 16, NO. 3, July 1982, pp. 21-29.
97. J. Kajiya and B. Von Herzen, "Ray Tracing Volume Densities,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph 84), Vol. 18, No. 3, 1988, pp. 165-174.
98. D.S. Ebert and R.E. Parent, "Rendering and Animation of Gaseous Phenomena by Combining Fast Volume and Scanline A-buffer Techniques,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph 90), Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 1990, pp. 361-376.
99. T. Nishita, Y. Miyawaki, and E. Nakamae, "A Shading Model for Atmospheric Scattering Considering Luminous Intensity Distribution of Light Sources,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 21, No. 4, July 1987, pp. 303-310.
100. H. Rushmeier and K. Torrance, "The Zonal Method for Calculating Light Intensities in the Presence of a Participating Medium,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 21, No. 4, July 1987, pp. 293-302.
101. W. Seales and C. Dyer, "Shaded Rendering and Shadow Computation for Polyhedral Animation,"Graphics Interface 90, May 1990, pp. 175-182.
102. P. Hsu and J. Staudhammer, "Superposing Images with Shadow Casting," to appear inVisualization 90, Oct. 1990.
35 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool