This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Medical Imaging: Surface Mapping Brain Function on 3D Models
September/October 1990 (vol. 10 no. 5)
pp. 33-41

A flexible graphics system for displaying functional and anatomic data on arbitrary collections of surfaces on or within the brain is presented. The system makes it possible to show complex, convoluted surfaces with the shading cues necessary to understand their shapes; to vary viewpoint, object position, illumination, and perspective easily; to show multiple-objects in one view, with or without transparency, in order to examine internal surfaces and intersecting objects in relation to each other; and to superimpose quantitative information on biological or otherwise defined surfaces anywhere within the volume, thus furthering understanding of both quantitative and positional information in its global context. These display techniques are applied to a new form of biological surface model, the removed surface. The surface-removal method creates a set of surfaces internal to a given object, so that, given a specified distance, every point on the created surfaces is equidistant from the surface of the enclosing object. The method is based on thresholding a derived scalar field, the minimum distance field. Models made by this method have applications in 3-D neurobiology and provide an alternative to cutaways for viewing patterns of internal functional activity.

1. C. Levinthal and R. Ware, "Three-Dimensional Reconstruction from Serial Sections,"Nature, Vol. 236, No. 5344, 1972, pp. 207-210.
2. A.W. Toga and T.L. Arnicar, "Image Analysis of Brain Physiology,"CG&A, Vol. 5, No. 12, Dec. 1985, pp. 20-25.
3. A.W. Toga andT.L. Arnicar-Sulze, "Digital Image Reconstruction for the Study of Brain Structure and Function,"J. Neuroscience Methods, Vol. 20, 1987, pp. 7-21.
4. D.E. Hillman et al., "High Resolution Brain Mapping,"Society Neuroscience Abs., Vol. 17, 1987, p. 528.
5. C.A. Lemere, C. Wurtz, and R.B. Livingston, "Whole-Brain Mapping: Strategies for the Construction of 'Nested' Computerized Atlases,"Society Neuroscience Abs., Vol. 17, 1987, p. 529.
6. E.J. Farrell, "Color Display and Interactive Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Data,"IBM J. Res. Develop., Vol. 2, No. 4, Apr. 1983, pp. 356-366.
7. A.W. Toga et al., "Digital Rat Brain: A Computerized Stereotaxic Atlas,"Society Neuroscience Abs., Vol. 17, 1987, p. 529.
8. R.A. Drebin, L. Carpenter, and P. Hanrahan, "Volume Rendering,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph 88), Vol. 22, No. 4. Aug. 1988, pp. 65-74.
9. M. Levoy,"Display of Surfaces from Volume Data,"CG&A, Vol. 8, No. 3, May 1988, pp. 29-37.
10. P. Sabella, "A Rendering Algorithm for Visualizing 3D Scalar Fields,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph 88), Vol. 22, No. 4, 1988, pp. 51-58.
11. C. Upson and M. Keeler, "V-BUFFER: Visible Volume Rendering,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 22, No. 4, Aug. 1988, pp. 59-64.
12. G.T. Herman and H.K. Liu, "Three-Dimensional Display of Human Organs from Computed Tomograms,"Computer Graphics and Image Processing, Vol. 9, 1979, pp. 1-21.
13. W.E. Lorensen and H.E. Cline, "Marching Cubes: A High-Resolution 3D Surface Construction Algorithm,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph 87), ACM Press, New York, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1987, pp. 163-169.
14. J.F. Greenleaf et al., "Computer Graphic Techniques for Study of Temporal and Spatial Relationships of Multidimensional Data Derived from Biplane Roentgen Videograms with Particular Reference to Cardioangiography,"Computers and Biomedical Research, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1972, pp. 368-387.
15. N. Kehtarnavaz, E.A. Philippe, and R.J.P. DeFigueiredo, "A Novel Surface Reconstruction and Display Method for Cardiac PET Imaging,"IEEE Trans. on Medical Imaging, Vol. 3, No. 3, Sept. 1984, pp. 108-115.
16. E.L. Schwartz et al., "Applications of Computer Graphics and Image Processing to 2D and 3D Modeling of the Functional Architecture of Visual Cortex,"CG&A, Vol. 8, No. 4, July 1988, pp. 13-23.
17. E.L. Schwartz and B. Merker, "Computer-Aided Neuroanatomy: Differential Geometry of Cortical Surfaces and an Optimal Flattening Algorithm,"CG&A, Vol. 6, No. 3, Mar. 1986, pp. 36-44.
18. R.S. Schwartz et al., "A Method for Quantitative Display of Three-Dimensional Regional Myocardial Function,"IEEE Trans. on Medical Imaging, Vol. 4, No. 4, Dec. 1985, pp. 208- 214.
19. P.B. Heffernan and R.A. Robb, "A New Procedure for Combined Display of 3D Cardiac Anatomic Surface and Regional Functions,"Computers in Cardiology, 1984, pp. 111-114.
20. P.K. Robertson and J.F. O'Callaghan, "The Application of Scene Synthesis Techniques to the Display of Multidimensional Image Data,"ACM Trans. Graphics, Vol. 4, No. 4, Oct. 1985, pp. 247-275.
21. D.R. Peachey, "Solid Texturing of Complex Surfaces,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 19, No. 3, July 1985, pp. 279-286.
22. K. Perlin, "An Image Synthesizer,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 19, No 3, July 1985, pp. 287-296.
23. H. Fuchs. Z. M. Kedem, and S. P. Uselton, "Optimal surface reconstruction from planar contours,"Commun. ACM, vol. 20, Oct. 1977.
24. L. Carpenter, "TheA-Buffer: An Antialiased Hidden Surface Method,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 18, No. 3, July 1984, pp. 103-108.
25. B. T. Phong, "Illumination for computer generated pictures,"Commun. Ass. Comput. Mach., vol. 18, no. 6, June 1975.
26. H. Blum, "Biological Shape and Visual Science," (Part I),J. Theoretical Biology, Vol. 38, 1973, pp. 205-287.
27. J.D. Foley and A. Van Dam,Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics(The System Programming Series). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1982.

Citation:
Bradley A. Payne, Arthur W. Toga, "Medical Imaging: Surface Mapping Brain Function on 3D Models," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 33-41, Sept.-Oct. 1990, doi:10.1109/38.59034
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.