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Motion Simulation: A Real Time Particle System for Display of Ship Wakes
May/June 1990 (vol. 10 no. 3)
pp. 30-35

The particle-system technique is used to model 'fuzzy objects', i.e. objects not bounded by well-defined, easily visible surfaces. the technique is used to depict, in real time, ship wakes in an air/sea simulation using a high-speed workstation for graphics calculation and display. The system consists of a graphics workstation tied to a compute server (typically a minicomputer, mainframe, or parallel processor, depending on the simulation complexity). The compute server executes the dynamic models associated with the vehicles in the simulation. The position and attitude of each vehicle are periodically transmitted to the graphics workstation, where a rendering of the situation is produced and displayed. Such a system normally runs at a frame redraw rate of 10 frames per second or greater to sustain an illusion of smooth movement. The ship wake phenomenon and its modeling, including some simplifications, are described.

1. D. Miller and C. Miller,Modern Naval Combat, Crescent Books, New York, 1986. Photos on oases 8, 94, 116, and 194 illustrate the types of effects modeled here.
2. J. Walker, "The Amateur Scientist: The Feathery Wake of a Moving Boat...,"Scientific American, Vol. 258, No. 2, Feb. 1988, pp. 124-127.
3. W. T. Reeves, "Particle systems-A technique for modelling a class of fuzzy objects,"SIGGRAPH 83, Comput. Graphics, vol. 17, pp. 359-376, July 1983.
4. D.R. Peachey, "Modeling Waves and Surf,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 20, No. 4, Aug. 1986, pp. 65-74.
5. A. Fournier, and W.T. Reeves, "A Simple Model of Ocean Waves,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 20, No. 4, Aug. 1986, pp. 75-84.

Citation:
Michael E. Goss, "Motion Simulation: A Real Time Particle System for Display of Ship Wakes," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 30-35, May-June 1990, doi:10.1109/38.55150
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