The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.06 - November/December (1988 vol.8)
pp: 41-51
ABSTRACT
<p>A class of physically based models suitable for animating flexible objects in simulated physical environments was proposed earlier by the authors (1987). The original formulation works as well in practice for models whose shapes are moderately to highly deformable, but it tends to become numerically ill conditioned as the rigidity of the models is increased. An alternative formulation of deformable models is presented in which deformations are decomposed into a reference component, which may represent an arbitrary shape, and a displacement component, allowing deformation away from this reference shape. The application of the deformable models to a physically based computer animation project is illustrated.</p>
CITATION
Demetri Terzopoulos, "Physically Based Models with Rigid and Deformable Components", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.8, no. 6, pp. 41-51, November/December 1988, doi:10.1109/38.20317
REFERENCES
1. D. Terzopoulos, J. Platt, A. Barr, and K. Fleischer, "Elastically deformable models."Comput. Graphics, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 205-214, July 1987.
2. J. Lassiter, "Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to 3D Computer Animation,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 21, No. 4, July 1987, pp. 35-44.
3. W.W. Armstrong and M. Green, "The Dynamics of Articulated Rigid Bodies for Purposes of Animation,"The Visual Computer, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1985, pp. 231-240.
4. J. Wilhelms and B.A. Barsky, "Using Dynamic Analysis to Animate Articulated Bodies Such as Humans and Robots,"Proc. Graphics Interface 85, Canadian Information Processing Soc., Toronto, 1985, pp. 97-104.
5. M. Girard and A.A. Maciejewski, "Computational Modeling for the Computer Animation of Legged Figures,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 19, No. 3, July 1985, pp. 263-270.
6. C.R. Feynman,Modeling the Appearance of Cloth, master's thesis, MIT, Cambridge, Mass, 1986.
7. C.M. Hoffmann and J.E. Hopcroft, "Simulation of Physical Systems from Geometric Models,"IEEE J. Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3, No. 3, June 1987, pp. 194-206.
8. P.M. Issacs and M.F. Cohen, "Controlling Dynamic Simulation with Kinematic Constraints, Behavior Functions, and Inverse Dynamics,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 21, No. 4, July 1987, pp. 215-224.
9. A. Barr et al.,Topics in Physically-Based Modeling, SIGGRAPH 87 course notes, Vol. 17, ACM, New York, 1987.
10. L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshitz,Theory of Elasticity, Pergamon Press, London, 1959.
11. H. Goldstein,Classical Mechanics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass, 1980.
12. R. Courant and D. Hilbert,Methods of Mathematical Physics, Vol. I, Interscience, London, 1953.
13. D. Terzopoulos, "Regularization of inverse visual problems involving discontinuities,"IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., vol. PAMI-8, no. 4, pp. 413-424, July 1986.
14. L. Lapidus and G.F. Pinder,Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations in Science and Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1982.
15. O.C. Zienkiewicz,The Finite Element Method, McGraw-Hill, London, 1977.
16. G. Dahlquist andÅ. Björk,Numerical Methods. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1974.
17. K. Fleischer et al., "Cooking with Kurt" (a computer-animated video), Schlumberger Palo Alto Research, Palo Alto, Calif., 1987.
18. D. Terzopoulos, "On Matching Deformable models to Images: Direct and Iterative Solutions,"Topical Meeting on Machine Vision, Technical Digest Series, Vol. 12., Optical Soc. America, Washington, DC., 1987, pp. 160-167.
19. D. Terzopoulos, A. Witkin, and M. Kass, "Symmetry-Seeking Models and 3D Object Reconstruction,"Int'l J. Computer Vision, Vol. 1, No. 3, Oct. 1987, pp. 211-221.
20. M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, "Snakes: Active Contour Models,"Int'l J. Computer Vision, Vol. 1, No. 4, Dec. 1987, pp. 321-331.
21. K. Fleischer and A. Witkin, "A Modeling Testbed,"Proc. Graphics Interface 88, Canadian Information Processing Soc., Toronto, 1988, pp. 127-137.
22. D. Terzopoulos and K. Fleischer, "Modeling Inelastic Deformation: Viscoelasticity, Plasticity, Fracture,"Computer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 22, No. 4, Aug. 1988, pp. 269-278.
26 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool