The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.05 - September/October (1988 vol.8)
pp: 65-84
ABSTRACT
<p>A taxonomy for the user-visible parts of window managers is presented. It is noted that there are actually very few significant differences, and the differences can be classified in a taxonomy with fairly limited branching. This taxonomy should be useful in evaluating various window managers, and it will also serve as a guide for the issues that need to be addressed by designers if future window-manager user interfaces. The advantages and disadvantages of the various options are presented.</p>
CITATION
Brad A. Myers, "A Taxonomy of Window Manager User Interfaces", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.8, no. 5, pp. 65-84, September/October 1988, doi:10.1109/38.7762
REFERENCES
1. D.C. Smith et al., "Designing the Star User Interface,"Byte, Vol. 7, No. 4, Apr. 1982, pp. 242-282.
2. D.C. Smith et al., "The Star User Interface: An Overview,"Proc. Nat'l Computer Conf., AFIPS Press, Arlington, Va., 1982, pp. 515-328.
3. W. Gregg, "The Apple Macintosh Computer,"Byte, Vol. 9, No. 2, Feb. 1984, pp. 30-54.
4. R. W. Scheifler and J. Gettys, "The X window system,"ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 79-109, 1986.
5. F.R.A. Hopgood et al., eds.,Methodology of Window Management(Proc. Alvey Workshop), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986. 250 pp.
6. G. Krasner,Smalltalk-80: Bits of History, Words of Advice, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1983.
7. L. Tesler, "The Smalltalk Environment,"Byte, Vol. 6, No. 8, Aug. 1981, pp. 90-147.
8. W. Teitelman, "Ten Years of Window Systems--A Retrospective View,"Methodology of Window Management(Proc. Alvey Workshop), 1985, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986, pp. 35-46.
9. D. Wallace, "Tajo Functional Specification, version 6.0," tech. report, Xerox, Oct. 1980.
10. W. Teitelman, "A Tour Through CEDAR,"IEEE Software, Vol. 1, No. 2, Apr. 1984, pp. 44-73.
11. D. Swinehart, P. Zellweger, R. Beach, and R. Hagmann, "A structural view of the Cedar programming environment,"ACM Trans. Program Lang. Syst., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 419-490, Oct. 1986.
12. Sun Microsystems, Inc.,NeWS Preliminary Technical Overview, Mountain View, Calif., 1986.
13. B.A. Myers, "The User Interface for Sapphire,"CG&A, Vol. 4, No. 12, Dec. 1984, pp. 13-23.
14. W.K. English, D.C. Engelbart, and M.L. Berman, "Display Selection Techniques for Text Manipulation,"IEEE Trans. Human Factors in Electronics, Vol. HFE-8, No. 1, Mar. 1967.
15. B.A. Myers, "Tools for Creating User Interfaces: An Introduction and Survey," Tech. Report CMU-CS-88-107, Carnegie Mellon University, Computer Science Dept. Also to appear inIEEE Software, Jan. 1989.
16. J. H. Morriset al., "Andrew: a distributed personal computing environment,"Commun. ACM, vol. 29, no. 3, Mar. 1986.
17. Sun Microsystems, Inc.SunWindows Programmers' Guide, Mountain View Calif., 1984.
18. G. Williams, "The Lisa Computer System,"Byte, Vol. 8, No. 2, Feb. 1983, pp. 33-50.
19. Apple Computer,Inside Macintosh, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1985.
20. J. Warnock and D.K. Wyatt, "A Device-Independent Graphics Imaging Model for Use with Raster Devices"Computer Graphics, (Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 16, No. 3, July 1982, pp. 313-319.
21. J. Gosling, "SunDew--A Distributed and Extensible Window System,"Methodology of Window Management, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (Proc. Alvey Workshop, 1985), pp. 47-57. (A slightly different version of this paper with the some title also appeared in the Proc. 1986 Winter Usenix Tech. Conf., Jan. 1986, pp. 98-103.
22. Adobe Systems,Postscript Language Reference Manual, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1985.
23. D. Sweetman, "A Modular Window System for Unix,"Methodology of Window Management(Proc. Alvey Workshop, 1985), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986, pp. 73-80.
24. MIT and DEC,X Tool kit Library--C Language Interface; Tool kit Beta Version 0.1; X Protocol Version 11, Boston, 1987.
25. K.J. Schmucker, "MacApp: An Application Framework,"Byte, Vol. 22, No. 8, Aug. 1986, pp. 189-193.
26. Apollo Computer, "Open Dialog Interface Management System Supports IBM, DEC, and Sun," Product Announcement, Chelmsford, Mass., 1987.
27. M. Gancarz, "Uwm: A User Interface for X Windows,"Conf. Proc. Summer Tech. Conf., Usenix, Denver, Jan. 1986, pp. 429-440.
28. V. Puglia et al., "Operating in a New Environment,"PC Magazine, Feb. 1986, pp. 109-132.
29. A. Goldberg,Smalltalk-80. The Interactive Programming Environment. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1984.
30. A. Goldberg and D. Robson,Smalltalk80: The Language and Its Implementation. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, May 1983.
31. S.A. Bly and J.K. Rosenberg, "A Comparison of Tiled and Overlapping Windows,"Human Factors in Computer Systems - CHI 86 Conf. Proc., ACM, 1986, pp. 101-106.
32. Xerox Office Systems Division,View Point Users Manual, Palo Alto, Calif., 1985.
33. E.S. Cohen, E.T. Smith, and L.A. Iverson, "Constraint-Based Tiled Windows,"Proc. 1st Int'l Conf. on Computer Workstations, CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., Nov. 1984, pp. 2-11.
34. R.M. Stallman, "Emacs: The Extensible, Customizable, Self-Documenting Display Editor," Tech. Report 519, MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab, Cambridge, Mass., 1979.
35. W. Teitelman and L. Masinter, "The Interlisp Programming Environment,"Computer, Vol. 14, No. 4, Apr. 1981, pp. 25-33.
36. R. Pike, "Graphics in Overlapping Bitmap Layers,"ACM Trans. Graphics, Vol. 2, No. 2, Apr. 1983, pp. 135-160. Also appears inComputer Graphics(Proc. SIGGRAPH), Vol. 17, No. 3, July 1983, pp. 331-355.
37. D.C. Smith,Pygmalion: A Computer Program to Model and Stimulate Creative Thought, Birkhauser, Basel, 1977.
38. Xerox Office Systems Division,Xerox Development Environment: Concept and Principles, Part #610E00130, Palo Alto, Calif., 1981.
39. B.A. Myers, "The Importance of Percent-Done Progress Indicators for Computer-Human Interfaces," (Proc. SIGCH)1, ACM, New York, 1985, pp. 11-17.
40. W. Teitelman. "A Display Oriented Programmer's Assistant,"Int'l J. Man-Machine Studies, Vol. 11, 1979, pp. 157-187. Also Xerox PARC Tech. Report CSL-77-3, Palo Alto, Calif., Mar. 8, 1977.
41. Int'l Computers Ltd.,ICL PERQ Guide to PNX, Int'l Computers, Ltd., UK Software and Literature Supply Sector, Reading, RG3 1NR, UK, 1983.
42. L. Bannon et al., "Evaluating and Analysis of Users' Activity Organization,"Proc. SIGCHI, Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, 1983, pp. 54-57.
43. S.K. Card and A. Henderson, Jr., "A Multiple Virtual-Workspace Interface to Support User Task Switching,"Proc. SIGCHI+GI, Human Factors in Computing Systems, Graphics Interface, ACM, New York, 1987, pp. 53-59.
44. D.A. Henderson, Jr., and S.K. Card, "Rooms: The Use of Multiple Virtual Workspace to Reduce Space Contention in a Window-Based Graphical User Interface,"ACM Trans Graphics, vol. 4., No. 3, July 1986, pp. 211-243.
45. J.D. Foley and A. Van Dam,Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics(The System Programming Series). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1982.
46. W.L. Bewley et al., "Human Factors Testing in the Design of Xerox's 8010 'Star' Office Workstation,"Proc. SIGCHI, Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, Dec. 1983, pp. 72-77.
47. W. Buxton and B. Myers, "A Study in Two-Handed Input,"Proc. SIGCHI, Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, Apr. 1986, pp. 321-326.
48. R. Stallman, D. Weinreb, and D. Moon, Lisp Machine Inc.,Lisp Machine Windows System Manual, Culver City, Calif. 1983.
49. Apollo Computer Inc., "Window Manager," Chelmsford, Mass., 1981.
21 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool