The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.03 - May/June (1988 vol.8)
pp: 29-37
ABSTRACT
<p>The application of volume-rendering techniques to the display of surfaces from sampled scalar functions of three spatial dimensions is discussed. It is not necessary to fit geometric primitives to the sampled data; images are formed by directly shading each sample and projecting it onto the picture plane. Surface-shading calculations are performed at every voxel with local gradient vectors serving as surface normals. In a separate step, surface classification operators are applied to compute a partial opacity of every voxel. Operators that detect isovalue contour surfaces and region boundary surfaces are examined. The technique is simple and fast, yet displays surfaces exhibiting smooth silhouettes and few other aliasing artifacts. The use of selective blurring and supersampling to further improve image quality is described. Examples from molecular graphics and medical imaging are given.</p>
CITATION
Marc Levoy, "Display of Surfaces from Volume Data", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.8, no. 3, pp. 29-37, May/June 1988, doi:10.1109/38.511
REFERENCES
1. G.T. Herman and H.K. Liu, "Three-Dimensional Display of Human Organs from Computer Tomograms,"Computer Graphics and Image Processing, Jan. 1979, pp. 1-21.
2. K.H. Hoehne and R. Bernstein, "Shading 3D-Images from CT Using Gray-Level Gradients,"IEEE Trans. Medical Imaging, Mar. 1986, pp. 45-47.
3. D.S. Schlusselberg and W.K. Smith, "Three-Dimensional Display of Medical Image Volumes,"NCGA 86 Conf. Proc., NCGA, Fairfax, Va., pp. 114-123.
4. S. Goldwasser, "Rapid Techniques for the Display and Manipulation of 3D Biomedical Data," NCGA 86 Conf. tutorial, NCGA, Fairfax, Va.
5. Y. Trousset and F. Schmitt, "Active-Ray Tracing for 3D Medical Imaging,"Eurographics 87 Conf. Proc., Amsterdam, pp. 139-149.
6. S.M. Pizer et al., "3D Shaded Graphics in Radiotherapy and Diagnostic Imaging,"NCGA 86 Conf. Proc., NCGA, Fairfax, Va., 1986, pp. 107-113.
7. W.E. Lorensen and H.E. Cline, "Marching Cubes: A High-Resolution 3D Surface Construction Algorithm,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph 87), ACM Press, New York, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1987, pp. 163-169.
8. T.R. Williams,A Man-Machine Interface for Interpreting Electron Density Maps, doctoral dissertation, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1982.
9. G.D. Purvis and C. Culberson, "On the Graphical Display of Molecular Electrostatic Force-Fields and Gradients of the Electron Density,"J. Molecular Graphics, June 1986, pp. 89-92.
10. A.R. Smith, "Volume Graphics and Volume Visualization: A Tutorial," Tech. Memo 176, Pixar Inc., San Rafael, Calif., 1987.
11. R.A. Drebin, verbal presentation inComputer Graphics and the Sciences, tutorial at SIGGRAPH 87.
12. M. Levoy and T. Whitted, "The Use of Points as a Display Primitive," Tech. Report 85-022, Computer Science Dept., Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1985.
13. M. Levoy, "Rendering of Surfaces from Volumetric Data," Tech. Report 87-016, Computer Science Dept., Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1987.
14. M. Levoy, "Direct Visualization of Surfaces from Computed Tomography Data,"SPIE Medical Imaging II Conf. Proc., Newport Beach, Calif., Feb. 1988 (to appear).
15. B. T. Phong, "Illumination for computer generated pictures,"Commun. Ass. Comput. Mach., vol. 18, no. 6, June 1975.
16. T. Porter and T. Duff, "Compositing Digital Images,"Computer Graphics(Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 18, No. 3, July 1984, pp. 253-259.
17. E. Catmull and A.R. Smith, "3D Transformations of Images in Scanline Order,"Computer Graphics, (Proc. SIGGRAPH), July 1980, pp. 279-285.
18. A. Kaufman, "Voxel-Based Architectures for Three-Dimensional Graphics,"Proc. IFIP 10th World Computer Congress, Amsterdam, Sept. 1986, pp. 361-366.
5 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool