The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.04 - April (1986 vol.6)
pp: 16-26
Akira Fujimoto , Graphica Computer Corporation
Takayuki Tanaka , Graphica Computer Corporation
Kansei Iwata , Graphica Computer Corporation
ABSTRACT
In this article we propose algorithms that address the two basic problems encountered in generating continuous-tone images by ray tracing: speed and aliasing. We examine previous approaches to the problem and then propose a scheme based on the coherency of an auxiliary data structure imposed on the original object domain. After investigating both simple spatial enumeration and a hybrid octree approach, we developed 3DDDA, a 3D line generator for efficient traversing of both structures. 3DDDA provides an order of magnitude improvement in processing speed compared to other known ray-tracing methods. Processing time is found to be virtually independent of the number of objects involved in the scene. For large numbers of objects, this method actully becomes faster than scan-line methods. To remove jags from edges, a scheme for identifying edge orientation and distance from pixel center to true edge has been implemented. The time required for antialiasing depends on the total length of the edges encountered, but it is normally only a fractional addition to the time needed to produce the scene without antialiasing.
INDEX TERMS
null
CITATION
Akira Fujimoto, Takayuki Tanaka, Kansei Iwata, "ARTS: Accelerated Ray-Tracing System", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.6, no. 4, pp. 16-26, April 1986, doi:10.1109/MCG.1986.276715
REFERENCES
1. Steven M.Rubin and TurnerWhitted, "A 3-Dimensional Representation for Fast Rendering of Complex Scenes," 1980pp. 110-116
2. TurnerWhitted, "An Improved Illumination Model for Shaded Display," Comm. ACM Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 343-349 June 1980
3. Roy A.Hall and Donald P.Greenberg, "A Testbed for Realistic Image Synthesis," IEEE CG&A Vol. 3, No. 8, pp. 10-20 Nov. 1983
4. HankWeghorst, GaryHooper, and Donald P.Greenberg, "Improved Computational Methods for Ray Tracing," ACM Trans. Graphics Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 51-69 Jan. 1984
5. TIPS-1 77 Version System Manual Apr. 1981 Naoki Hashimoto and Edward Computer Aided Manufacturing-International, Inc., Ithaca, NY
6. S.D.Roth, "Ray Casting for Modelling Solids," Computer Graphics and Image Processing No. 18, pp. 104-109 1982
7. Michael R.Kaplan, SIGGRAPH 85 tutorial , July 1985
8. David F.Rogers, Procedural Elements for Computer Graphics , McGraw-Hill 1985pp. 236-305 363-380
9. Paul S.Heckbert and PatHanrahan, "Beam Tracing Polygonal Objects," Computer Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH 84) July 1984 Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 119-127
10. Mark A.Yerry and Mark S.Shephard, "A Modified Quadtree Approach to Finite Element Mesh Generation," IEEE CG&A Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 39-46 Jan./Feb. 1983
11. TomoyukiNishita and EihachiroNakamae, "Half-tone Representation of 3-D Objects Illuminated by Area Sources of Polyhedron Sources," Proc. IEEE Compsac Nov. 1983pp. 237-242
12. AkiraFujimoto, Christopher G.Perrott, and KanseiIwata, "A 3-D Graphics Display System with Depth Buffer and Pipeline Processor," IEEE CG&A Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 11-23 June 1984
13. PaoloSabella and Michael J.Wozny, "Toward Fast Color-Shaped Images of CAD/CAM Geometry," IEEE CG&A Vol. 3, No. 8, pp. 65 Nov. 1983
14. G.Hamlin Jr. and C.W.Gear, "Raster Scan Hidden Surface Algorithm Techniques," Computer Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH 77) Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 206-213
15. I.E.Sutherland, R.F.Sprout, and R.A.Schumacker, "A Characterization of Ten Hidden Surface Algorithms," Computing Surveys Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 1-55 Mar. 1974
16. W. JackBouknight, "A Procedure for Generation of Three-dimensional Half-tones," Computer Graphics Presentations, Comm. ACMpp. 292-301 Sept. 1970
17. HenriGourand, "Continuous Shading of Curved Surfaces," IEEE Trans. Computerspp. 302-308 June 1971
18. Bui TuongPhong, "Illumination for Computer Generated Pictures," Comm. ACM Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 311-317 June 1975
19. K.Fujimura, H.Toriya, K.Yamaguchi, and T.L.Kunii, "An Enhanced Oct-tree Data Structure and Operations for Solid Modeling," , Dept. of Information Science, University of Tokyo Jan. 1983
20. HitoshiMatsumoto and KouichiMurakami, "Ray-Tracing with Octree Data Structure" Proc. 28th Information Processing Conf. Japanese 1983pp. 1535-1536
21. Andrew S.Glassner, "Space Subdivision for Fast Ray Tracing," IEEE CG&A Vol. 4, No. 10, pp. 15-22 Oct. 1984
22. AkiraFujimoto and KanseiIwata, "Jag-Free Images on Raster Displays," IEEE CG&A Vol. 3, No. 9, pp. 26-34 Dec. 1983
23. Louis J.Doctor and John G.Torborg, "Display Techniques for Octree-Encoded Objects," IEEE CG&A Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 29-38 July 1981
24. Chris L.Jackins and Steven L.Tanimoto, "Oct-Trees and Their Use in Representing Three-Dimensional Objects," Computer Graphics and Image Processing 14pp. 249-270 1980
25. DonaldMeagher, Computer Graphics and Image Processing , 1982pp. 129-147 19
26. K.Yamaguchi, T.L.Kunii, K.Fujimura, and H.Toriya, "Octree-Related Data Structures and Algorithms," IEEE CG&A Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 53-59 Jan. 1984
27. , Osaka University CG Group , "LINKS-1" Japanese PIXEL 83 Vol. 5-6, No. 12, pp. 73-92 May/June 1983
28. James F.Blinn, "A Generalization of Algebraic Surface Drawing," ACM Trans. Graphics Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 255-256 July 1982
29. JohnAmanatides, "Ray Tracing with Cones," Computer Graphics (Proc. SIGGRAPH 83) July 1983 Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 129-135
18 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool