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Issue No.04 - Oct.-Dec. (2012 vol.34)
pp: 58-70
Lawrence A. Rowe , FX Palo Alto Laboratory
Developed at the University of California, Berkeley, beginning in 1972, the INGRES relational database management system was originally a research prototype that helped to prove the viability of relational systems. This article describes the subsequent development and commercialization of INGRES and covers the strategic decisions made by the company's founders and the lessons learned from their experiences.
Relational databases, Companies, History, Commercialization, Computational modeling, Strategic planning, Database systems, ASK Corporation, history of computing, relational databases, RDBMS, INGRES, University of California, Berkeley, Michael Stonebraker, Eugene (Gene) Wong, QUEL, SQL, Oracle
Lawrence A. Rowe, "History of the Ingres Corporation", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.34, no. 4, pp. 58-70, Oct.-Dec. 2012, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2012.51
1. To help readers distinguish, the INGRES product and project name is written with capital letters, and the company name is identified by an initial capital letter (Ingres).
2. E.F. Codd, "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks," Comm. ACM, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 377–387.
3. Ken Thompson visited Berkeley for two weeks in early 1973. He returned as a visiting professor during the 1975/1976 academic year and made many important contributions to what later became the Berkeley Software Distribution.
4. A different version of these events was described by M.R. Stonebraker, "Retrospection on a Database System," The INGRES Papers: An Anatomy of a Relational Database System, Addison-Wesley Longman, 1985. The version here was written after extensive discussions with Michael, Gene, and others involved at the time.
5. M.R. Stonebraker, "The Design and Implementation of INGRES," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 1, no. 3, 1976, pp. 189–222.
6. E.F. Codd, "Data Base Management," Proc. Nat'l Computer Conf. and Expo., ACM Press, 1975, pp. 377–378.
7. L.A. Rowe and K.A. Shoens, "Data Abstractions, Views, and Updates in RIGEL," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf., ACM Press, 1979, pp. 71–81.
8. M. Zloof, "Query by Example," Proc. 1975 Nat'l Computer Conf. and Exposition (AFIPS 75), ACM Press, 1975, pp. 431–438.
9. L.A. Rowe and K.A. Shoens, "Programming Language Constructs for Screen Definition," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-9, no. 1, 1983.
10. L.A. Rowe and K.A. Shoens, "FADS: A Forms Application Development System," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf., ACM Press, 1982, pp. 28–38.
11. L.A. Rowe, "The PICASSO Application Framework," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH UIST Conf., ACM Press, 1991, pp. 95–105.
12. Cullinane later said that not acquiring the INGRES technology was a major strategic mistake for Cullinet.
13. Stonebraker, The INGRES Papers.
14. Sadly, Bob Kooi passed away in 1993 from a brain hemorrhage.
15. See
16. G. Moore, Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-Tech Products to Mainstream Customers, Harper Business, 1991.
17. D. Bitton, D.J. DeWitt, and C. Turbyfill, "Benchmarking Database Systems A Systematic Approach," Proc. 9th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases (VLDB 83), Morgan Kaufmann, 1983, pp. 8–19.
18. D. Bitton, "A Measure of Transaction Processing Power," Datamation, vol. 30, no. 7, 1985, pp. 112–118.
19. M.R. Stonebraker and L.A. Rowe, "The Design of POSTGRES," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf., ACM Press, 1986, pp. 340–355.
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