The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.04 - Oct.-Dec. (2012 vol.34)
pp: 38-48
ABSTRACT
The relational data model, proposed by E.F. Codd in 1970, inspired several research projects at IBM and elsewhere. Among these was System R, which demonstrated the commercial viability of relational database systems. This article describes the research challenges faced by the System R team and how the technology they created has influenced the development of the modern database industry.
INDEX TERMS
Relational databases, Data models, Database systems, History, Software development, SQL, history of computing, relational databases, relational database systems, IBM, System R, E.F. (Ted) Codd, database industry, DB2
CITATION
Bradford W. Wade, Donald D. Chamberlin, "IBM Relational Database Systems: The Early Years", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.34, no. 4, pp. 38-48, Oct.-Dec. 2012, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2012.48
REFERENCES
1. B. Grad and T.J. Bergin, "Mainframe Software: Database Management Systems," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 31, no. 4, 2009, pp. 3–5.
2. The San Jose Research Laboratory was founded in 1952 with a charter to pursue radically new approaches to information processing problems. One of its earliest achievements was the invention of the disk drive. The storage and management of data have been an emphasis of the laboratory and its successor, the Almaden Research Center, ever since. Visit www.almaden.ibm.comhistory for more details.
3. E.F. Codd, "Derivability, Redundancy and Consistency of Relations Stored in Large Data Banks," IBM Research Report RJ599, 1969. See also SIGMOD Record, vol. 38, no. 1, 2009, pp. 17–36.
4. E.F. Codd, "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks," Comm. ACM, June 1970, pp. 377–387.
5. C.W. Bachman, "The Programmer as Navigator," Comm. ACM, vol. 16, no. 11, 1973, pp. 635–658.
6. R.L. Patrick, "IMS @ Conception," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 31, no. 4, 2009, pp. 62–65.
7. W.C. McGee, "The Information Management System (IMS) Program Product," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 31 no. 4, 2009, pp. 66–75.
8. B. Klein et al., An Introduction to IMS: Your Complete Guide to IBM Information Management System, 2nd ed., IBM Press, 2012.
9. J.M. Kruntorad, "History of The CA IDMS Database Management System," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 31 no. 4, 2009, pp. 100–106.
10. "CA IDMS/DB, Version 18.0," product brief, CA Technologies, 2011; http://www.ca.com/~/media/Files/ProductBriefs idms-db-ps.pdf.
11. E.F. Codd, "Is Your DBMS Really Relational?" Computerworld,14 Oct. 1985.
12. E.F. Codd, "Does Your DBMS Run by the Rules?" Computerworld,21 Oct. 1985.
13. E.F. Codd, "A Database Sublanguage Founded on the Relational Calculus," Proc. SIGFIDET Workshop, ACM Press, 1971, pp. 35–68.
14. E.F. Codd, "Relational Completeness of Data Base Sublanguages," Database Systems, R. Rustin ed., Prentice Hall, 1972, pp. 65–98. Also, IBM Research Report RJ 987, 1972.
15. D. Bj⊘rner et al., "The Gamma-0 n, -ary Relational Data Base Interface Specifications of Objects and Operations," IBM Research Report RJ1200, 1973.
16. E.F. Codd, "Understanding Relations," published in installments in Bulletin of ACM SIGFIDET, vol. 5, 1973, and Bulletin of ACM SIGMOD, vol. 6, 1974.
17. R.F. Boyce et al., "Specifying Queries as Relational Expressions: The SQUARE Data Sublanguage," Comm. ACM, vol. 18, no. 11, 1975, pp. 621–628.
18. S. Todd, "The Peterlee Relational Test Vehicle: A System Overview," IBM Systems J., vol. 15, no. 4, 1976, pp. 285–308.
19. G. van Emde Boas-Lubsen and P. van Emde Boas, "Compiling Horn-Clause Rules in IBM's Business System 12: An Early Experiment in Declarativeness," Proc. 25th Seminar on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Informatics (SOFSEM 98), B. Rovan ed., Springer, p. 76.
20. Business System 12 Reference Manual, pre-release copy, IBM DCS-SC, June 1983.
21. R.A. Lorie, "XRM - An Extended (N-ary) Relational Memory," IBM Research Report G320-2096, 1974.
22. D.D. Chamberlin, and R.F. Boyce, "SEQUEL: A Structured English Query Language," Proc. ACM- SIGMOD Workshop on Data Description, Access, and Control, ACM Press, 1974, pp. 249–264.
23. P. Reisner, R.F. Boyce, and D.D. Chamberlin, "Human Factors Evaluation of Two Data Base Query Languages—Square and Sequel," Proc. AFIPS Nat'l Computer Conf., ACM Press, 1975, pp. 447–452.
24. E.F. Codd, "Recent Investigations in Relational Data Base Systems," Information Processing 74, North-Holland, 1974, pp. 1017–1021.
25. F. Brooks, The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering, Addison-Wesley, 1975.
26. M.M. Astrahan and D. D. Chamberlin, "Implementation of a Structured English Query Language," Comm. ACM, vol. 18, no. 10, 1975, pp. 580–588.
27. M.M. Astrahan et al., "System R: Relational Approach to Database Management," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 1, no. 2, 1976, pp. 97–137.
28. R. Bayer, "Binary B-Trees for Virtual Memory," Proc. SIGFIDET Workshop, ACM Press, 1971, pp. 219–235.
29. J. Gray and A. Reuter, Transaction Processing: Concepts and Techniques, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1993.
30. C. Mohan et al., "ARIES: A Transaction Recovery Method Supporting Fine-Granularity Locking and Partial Rollbacks Using Write-Ahead Logging," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 17, no. 1, 1992, pp. 94–162.
31. P.G. Selinger et al., "Access Path Selection in a Relational Database Management System," Proc. SIGMOD Conf., ACM Press, 1979, pp. 23–34.
32. D.D. Chamberlin et al., "Support for Repetitive Transactions and Ad Hoc Queries in System R," ACM Trans. Database Systems, vol. 6, no. 1, 1981, pp. 70–94.
33. K. Geiger, Inside ODBC, Microsoft Press, 1995.
34. B. Van Haecke, JDBC: Java Database Connectivity, John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
35. E.F. Codd, "Seven Steps to Rendezvous with the Casual User," Proc. IFIP Working Conf. Data Base Management, 1974, pp. 179–200.
36. G.D. Held, M.R. Stonebraker, and E. Wong, "INGRES: A Relational Data Base System," Proc. Nat'l Computer Conf. and Expo., ACM Press, 1975, pp. 409–416.
37. "Sybase History," http://www.sybase.com/about_sybasehistory .
38. R. Soukup and K. Delaney, Inside Microsoft SQL Server 7.0, Microsoft Press, 1999.
39. M.M. Zloof, "Query-by-Example: The Invocation and Definition of Tables and Forms," Proc. AFIPS Nat'l Computer Conf., ACM Press, 1975, pp. 431–437.
40. J. Sayles, "QMF: How to Use Query Management Facility with DB2 and SQL/DS," QED Publishing Group, 1992.
41. C.J. Date, "An Introduction to the Unified Database Language (UDL)," Proc. 6th Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, VLDB Endowment, 1980, pp. 13–32.
42. C. Babcock, "What's the Greatest Software Ever Written?" Information Week,14 Aug. 2006; http://www.informationweek.com/news191901844 .
32 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool