The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.03 - July-Sept. (2012 vol.34)
pp: 55-66
Dejan Ristanović , PC Press, Serbia
Jelica Protić , University of Belgrade, Serbia
ABSTRACT
Programmable pocket calculators of the mid-1970s opened up a new segment of the personal computing devices market. Calculator users established clubs, magazines, and conferences, and their interaction with manufacturers shaped the products' further development. This article explores one of the understudied roots of personal computing, through the evolution of the user communities formed around the TI-59 and HP-41C calculators.
INDEX TERMS
Calculators, Software development, History, Microcomputers, Calculators, Random access memory, Programming, Hewlett-Packard, Calculators, Software, Libraries, Microcomputers, Registers, Random access memory, Programming, personal computers, history of computing, computer system implementation, computer systems organization, electronics, programmable calculators, TI-59, HP-41C, Texas Instruments
CITATION
Dejan Ristanović, Jelica Protić, "Once Upon a Pocket: Programmable Calculators from the Late 1970s and Early 1980s and the Social Networks Around Them", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.34, no. 3, pp. 55-66, July-Sept. 2012, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2011.63
REFERENCES
1. P.E. Ceruzzi, A History of Modern Computing, 2nd ed., MIT Press, 2003.
2. C.C. Tung, "The 'Personal Computer': A Fully Programmable Pocket Calculator," Hewlett- Packard J., vol. 25, no. 9, 1974, pp. 2–20.
3. M. Campbell-Kelly, A History of the Software Industry, MIT Press, 2003.
4. E. Swartzlander, "Generations of Calculators," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 17, no. 3, 1995, pp. 75–77.
5. O. van Poelje, "The Demise of the Slide Rule," 2001; www.rekeninstrumenten.nl.
6. "HP-35 Scientific Calculator Awarded IEEE Milestone,"14 Apr. 2009; www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/press/2009090414a.html .
7. E. Swartzlander, "Generations of Calculators," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 19, no. 1, 1977, pp. 74–75.
8. "Survey Results," Professional Program Exchange (PPX), vol. 5, no. 1, 1981, p. 2.
9. V.G. Hansen, "Simple Expressions for Determining Radar Detection Thresholds," IEEE Trans. Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 18, no. 4, 1982, pp. 510–512.
10. R. Pinkham and D.F. Anderson, "A Technique for Modeling p-n Junction Depletion Capacitance of Multiple Doping Regions in Integrated Circuit," Solid-State Electronics, vol. 29, no. 8, 1986, pp. 773–777.
11. M. Burns et al., "A Comparative Study of Linear Array Synthesis Technique Using a Personal Computer," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 32, no. 8, 1984, pp. 884–887.
12. J. Schindler and Z. Schindler, "Numerical Identification of Bacteria with a Hand-held Calculator as an Alternative to Code Books," J. Clinical Microbiology, vol. 5, no. 2, 1982, pp. 332–334.
13. "HP Creates A Whole New Standard," HP Key Notes, vol. 3, no. 3, 1979, p. 1.
14. S.W. Poland, Microprocessor System Having High Order Capability, US patent 4153937, Patent and Trademark Office, filed 1 Apr. 1977.
15. Master Library: Using the Power of Your Solid State Software Module, Texas Instruments, 1977.
16. "TI-59 Goes to Lake Placid," PPX, vol. 4, no. 1, 1980, p. 1.
17. "SR-52/TI-59 Conversion," PPX, vol. 1, no. 6, 1977, p. 5.
18. I. Svetel et al., "Prompt System Redesign: Shifting to Open Source Technology to Satisfy User Requirements," Computer Science and Information Systems (ComSIS), vol. 7, no. 3, 2010, pp. 441–457.
19. "The G Update," PPX, vol. 5, no. 5, 1981, p. 1.
20. M. Swinnen, "Welcome," PPC Notes, vol. 5, no. 1, 1980, p. 1.
21. "Professional Training on the TI-59," PPX, vol. 3, no. 6, 1979, p. 2.
22. M. Swinnen, "Editorial," PPC Notes, vol. 6, no. 1, 1981, p. 1.
23. M. Swinnen, "Editorial," PPC Notes, vol. 7, no. 9, 1982, p. 1.
24. J. Protić and D. Ristanović, "Building Computers in Serbia: The First Half of the Digital Century," Computer Science and Information Systems (ComSIS), vol. 8, no. 3, 2011, pp. 549–571.
25. H. Schnepf and R. Vanderburgh, "HIR Operations: A Major Discovery," 52-Notes, vol. 2, no. 9, 1977, p. 1.
26. T. Ferguson, "CROM Vs. User Code Execution Speed," 52-Notes, vol. 2, no. 12, 1977, p. 2.
27. "Quirks," PPC Notes, vol. 5, no. 6, 1980, p. 4.
28. M. Neef, "Branching from the Key Board During Program Execution," PPC Notes, vol. 5, no. 7, 1980, p. 11.
29. D. Ristanović, "Branching from the Keyboard During Program Execution," PPC Notes, vol. 6, no. 9, 1981, p. 31.
30. P. Acosta, "Hexadecimal Keycodes," PPC Notes, vol. 6, no. 9–10, 1981, p. 14.
31. D. Ristanović, "Hex Codes," PPC Notes, vol. 7, no. 6, 1982, p. 8.
32. M. Sperber, "Graphics Mode," PPC Notes, vol. 6, nos. 4–5, 1981, p. 3.
33. "HP Announces HP41C," PPC J., vol. 6, no. 4, 1979, p. 6.
34. N.L. Johnson and V.V. Marathe, "Bulk CMOS Technology for the HP-41C," Hewlett-Packard J., vol. 31, no. 3, 1980, pp. 20–22.
35. B.D. Carbrey, "A Pocket Computer? Sizing Up the HP-41C," BYTE, Dec. 1980.
36. B.E. Musch et al., "Powerful Personal Calculator System Sets New Standards," Hewlett-Packard J., vol. 31, no. 3, 1980, pp. 3–12.
37. R.D. Quick and S.L. Harper, "HP-IL: A Low-Cost Digital Interface for Portable Applications," Hewlett-Packard J., vol. 34, no. 1, 1983, pp. 3–10.
38. L. Wilkins and P. Lind, "M-Code, Hardware and Software," Proc. PPC Southwest Conf., PPC, 1983, pp. 22–43.
39. Users' Library Series 40 Software Catalog, Hewlett-Packard, Aug. 1984.
40. "Library Corner," HP Key Notes, vol. 4, no. 3, 1980, p. 3.
41. "HP-67/97/41 Users' Library Redemption List," Hewlett-Packard, 1983.
42. "HP-41's Again Aboard Columbia," HP Key Notes, vol. 6, no. 2, 1982, p. 1.
43. "HP Users' Program Library Europe to Close," Datafile, vol. 2, no. 3, 1983, p. 31.
44. "Member Letter," 65 NOTES, vol. 4, no. 10, 1977.
45. "PPC Chapter List by Country," PPC Calculator J., vol. 9, no. 6, 1982.
46. "HP-41C Combined Hex Table," PPC J., vol. 6, no. 5, 1979, pp. 22–23.
47. B. Danby, "B2," PPC J., vol. 6, no. 5, 1979, p. 28.
48. "HP-41C Data and Program Structure," PPC J., vol. 6, no. 6, 1979, p. 19.
49. W.C. Wickes, "Through the HP-41C With Gun And Camera," PPC J., vol. 6, no. 8, 1979, p. 27.
50. W.C. Wickes, "Byte-Jumping or The Poor Man's Black Box," PPC Calculator J., vol. 7, no. 4, 1980, p. 26.
51. E. Gostelli, "Generalized Fn Byte Maskers," PPC Calculator J., vol. 8, no. 5, 1981, p. 11.
52. K. Kendall, "Bare Bones Prefix Masker," PPC Calculator J., vol. 8, no. 6, 1981, p. 40.
53. W.C. Wickes, Synthetic Programming on the HP-41C, Larken Publications, 1980.
54. R. Nelson, "PPC Custom ROM," PPC J., vol. 6, no. 5, 1979, p. 27.
55. PPC ROM User's Manual, PPC, 1981.
56. "ROM Routines Listed by Documentation Coordinator," PPC ROM User's Manual, PPC, 1981, p. VII.
57. "HP Extended Function/Memory Module," PPC Calculator J., vol. 8, no. 6, 1981, p. 36.
58. R. Atwood, "A Program File Can Run," PPC Calculator J., vol. 9, no. 3, 1982, p. 24.
59. "Member Letter," PPC Calculator J., vol. 7, no. 10, 1980.
60. L.A. Wilkins, "HP-41 Machine Language Development Lab - MLDL," PPC Calculator J., vol. 9, no. 3, 1982, p. 37.
61. D. Ristanović,"Zagonetke Sharp-a PC1500" [Sharp PC 1500 Puzzles], Računari u vašoj kući [Computers in Your Home], vol. 1, Dec. 1983, p. 80.
62. "Member Letter," PPC Calculator J., vol. 9, no. 4, 1982.
63. "Member Letter," PPC Calculator J., vol. 11, no. 7, 1984.
64. M. Swinnen, "TI-88—Read all About it," PPC Notes, vol. 7, nos. 7–8, 1982, p. 1.
65. "TI Portable CPU Line May Dump Top Calculator," Electronic News,27 Sept. 1982, p. 57.
66. M. Campbell-Kelly and W. Aspray, Computer: A History of the Information Machine, Westview Press, 2004.
67. S. Levy, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, anniversary ed., O'Reilly Media, 2010.
68. S. Turkle, The Second Self, 20th anniversary ed., MIT Press, 2005.
69. H. Horn, "Where Do I Go From Here," HP Key Notes, vol. 8, no. 2, 1983, p. 2.
70. C. Lindsay, "From the Shadows: Users as Designers, Producers, Marketers, Distributors, and Technical Support," How Users Matter, MIT Press, 2005, pp. 29–50.
71. D. Ristanović, "TI59 to HP-41 Compiler," PPC Calculator J., vol. 9, no. 6, 1982, pp. 27–29.
72. M. Sperber, "CHESS 2.1," PPC Notes, vol. 7, no. 7, 1982, p. 20.
73. C. Roeltgen, "Chess for HP-41," PPC Calculator J., vol. 9, no. 4, 1982, p. 78.
74. J.R. Yost, "From the Editor's Desk," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 33, no. 2, 2011, pp. 2–3.
35 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool