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Issue No.01 - Jan.-March (2012 vol.34)
pp: 74-82
Edgar A. Sack , Computer History Museum
David A. Laws , Computer History Museum
<p>In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Westinghouse Electric engineers and scientists pursued research and developed many innovations in semiconductor design and manufacturing that found widespread use throughout the industry and later contributed to the important role of ICs in the development of computing.</p>
history of computing, Westinghouse, molecular electronics, integrated circuit, von Hippel, Husher, Sack, silicon, Strull, Herwald, Henkels
Edgar A. Sack, David A. Laws, "Westinghouse: Microcircuit Pioneer from Molecular Electronics to ICs", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.34, no. 1, pp. 74-82, Jan.-March 2012, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2012.15
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3. S.W. Herwald, "Molecular Electronics," Current Science, June 1961, p. 210.
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12. J.D. Husher, By a River, On a Hill, iUniverse, 2007, pp. 124–137.
13. J.D. Husher email comm. with D.A. Laws6 Feb. 2008.
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15. B.T. Murphy and J.D. Husher, "A Frequency Selective Amplifier Formed in Silicon", Proc. Nat'l Electronics Conf. Proc., vol. XVI, 1960, p. 592.
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19. T.P. Norwalk and H.W. Henkels, "Multifunctional Semiconductor Devices," US patent 3263138, Patent and Trademark Office, 26 July 1966.
20. B.T. Murphy, "Monolithic Semiconductor Devices," US patent 3237062, Patent and Trademark Office, filed 20 Oct. 1961, issued 22 Feb. 1966.
21. F. Goro, "In Tiny Devices, A Revolution: Microelectronics Makes Equipment Smaller and Better," photographic essay, Life Magazine, vol. 50, no. 10, 1961, p. 60.
22. H.C. Lin, "Complementary Transistor Structure," US patent 3197710, Patent and Trademark Office, 27 July 1965.
23. "The Next Revolution in Electronics," Business Week,14 Apr. 1962.
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25. Choi and Mody, "The Long History of Molecular Electronics," p. 23.
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27. B. Lojeck, History of Semiconductor Engineering, Springer, 2007, p. 156.
28. W.M. Kaufman, "Monolithic Semiconductor Structure Comprising at Least One Junction Transistor," US patent 3136897, filed 25 Sept. 1961, issued 9 June 1964.
29. L.D. Bolton, "The UNIVAC 7901000-series Integrated Circuits,"7 Oct. 2008; see 7901000RevC.pdf .
30. E.A. Sack, "ELF: A New Electroluminescent Display," Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. (IRE), IRE, vol. 46, 1958, pp. 1694–1699.
31. H.W. Henkels, "Power Transistor," US patent 2858489, Patent and Trademark Office, filed 4 Nov. 1959, issued 28 Oct. 1958.
32. E.A. Sack, P.N. Wolfe, and J.A. Asars, "Construction and Performance of an ELF Display System," Proc. IRE, vol. 50, no. 4, part I, 1962, pp. 432–441.
33. E.A. Sack, "Consumer Electronics: An Important Driver of Integrated Circuit Technology," Proc. IEEE, vol. 82, no. 4, 1994, pp. 465–468.
34. E.A. Sack, R.C. Lyman, and G.Y. Chang, "Evolution of the Concept of a Computer on a Slice," Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, no. 12, 1964, pp. 1713–1720.
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