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Issue No.04 - October-December (2011 vol.33)
pp: 70-80
Thomas Haigh , University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
ABSTRACT
<p>A biography of Charles W. Bachman, Turing Award winner and a primary inventor of the database management system through his early 1960s work on the Integrated Data Store (IDS). He worked for Dow Chemical, Generarl Electric, Honeywell and Cullinae Database Systems as well as founding Bachman Information Systems. Bachman played an important role in user groups and standards bodies&#x2014;including IBM Share, the CODASYL Data Base Task Group (DBTG), the Systems Planning and Resources Committee (SPARC) steering committee within the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) subcommittee of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).</p>
INDEX TERMS
history of computing, Charles W. Bachman, database management systems, IDS, 9PAC, General Electric, Honeywell, Bachman Information Systems, CODASYL, database task group, DBTG, ANSI SPARC, partnership data model, role data model
CITATION
Thomas Haigh, "Charles W. Bachman: Database Software Pioneer", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.33, no. 4, pp. 70-80, October-December 2011, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2011.68
REFERENCES
1. These details are taken from C.W. Bachman, "Oral History Interview by Thomas Haigh," 25–26 Sept. 2004, ACM Oral History Interviews collection. Material in this biography not explicitly referenced should be assumed to come from this interview, referred to hereafter as CWB TH OH.
2. CWB TH OH, p. 16.
3. SHARE, 9PAC and IDS are discussed in more detail in T. Haigh, "How Data Got its Base: Generalized Information Storage Software in the 1950s and 60s," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 31, no. 4, 2009, pp. 6–25.
4. T. Haigh, "How Data Got its Base: Generalized Information Storage Software in the 1950s and 1960s," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 31, no. 4, 2009, pp. 6–25.
5. CWB OH TH, pp. 23–24. B. Orchard-Hays, "SHARE Committee on Theory of Information Handling: Report TIH:1," Charles W. Bachman Papers, CBI 125, Charles Babbage Inst., 1958.
6. C.W. Bachman, "INGEN Proposal," Charles W. Bachman Papers, CBI 125, Charles Babbage Inst., 1 May 1959 or 1960.
7. A.D., Chandler, Jr., Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise, MIT Press, 1962.
8. For a snapshot of General Electric's managerial culture in the period see R.J. Cordiner, New Frontiers for Professional Managers, McGraw-Hill, 1956.
9. H.F. Dickie, "Integrated Systems Planning at G.E.," Management Control Systems, D.G. Malcolm, and A.J. Rowe eds., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1960, pp. 137–155.
10. C.W. Bachman, "Presentation Prepared for the Information Systems Task Force, September 4," Charles W. Bachman Papers, CBI 125, Charles Babbage Inst., 1 May 1962.
11. T. Haigh,, "Inventing Information Systems: The Systems Men and the Computer, 1950–1968," Business History Rev., vol. 75, no. 1, 2001, pp. 15–61.
12. According to Bachman SIMSCRIPT, one of the accomplishments for which Markowitz won the prize, was a continuation of work begun on General Electric's first Integrated Systems Project.
13. C.W. Bachman, "The Origin of the Integrated Data Store (IDS): The First Direct-Access DBMS," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 31, no. 4, 2009, pp. 42–54.
14. CWB OH TH, pp. 71–75.
15. J.R. Elliot, Jr., "More Information Please," Baron's,2 Nov. 1964.
16. V.S. Cooper, "Letter to Charles Bachman, July 14," Charles W. Bachman Papers, CBI 125, Charles Babbage Inst., 1 May 1964.
17. WEYCOS is discussed in J.P. Fichten, "The Weyerhaeuser Information Systems − A Progress Report,", Proc. Fall Joint Computer Conference, part II, Am. Federation of Information Processing Societies, 1972; and CWB TH OH, pp. 82–91.
18. CWB TH OH, p. 77.
19. C.W. Bachman, "Biographical Sketch (attached to May 6, 1977 letter to Chris Bunyan)," Charles W. Bachman Papers, CBI 125, Charles Babbage Inst., 1 May 1977.
20. S.B. Williams, "Performance Appraisal: C.W. Bachman, Manager - Application Technology Subsection, June 1968–May 1969," Charles W. Bachman Papers, CBI 125, Charles Babbage Inst., 1 May 1969.
21. CWB TH OH, p. 101.
22. , Of the 55 other Turing Award winners through 2010, only four resemble Bachman in having spent all or most of their careers in industry without earning a PhD: John Backus, Ken Thompson, Frances E. Allen, and Charles Thacker. Several other winners were career academics without PhDs (such as Robert Floyd) or industrial researchers with PhDs (such as Denis Ritchie).
23. C.W. Bachman, "The Programmer as Navigator," Comm. ACM, vol. 16, no. 11, 1973, pp. 653–658.
24. CWB TH OH, p. 108.
25. C.J. Date, "Oral History Interview with Thomas Haigh," Computer History Museum, 13 June 2007; http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/ accession102658166.
26. Papers from debate participants were published in R. Rustin, ed., Proc. 1974 ACM SIGFIDET Workshop on Data Description, Access and Controls: Data Models: Data-Structure-Set versus Relational, ACM Press, 1974. The Bachman collection at CBI includes the program for the debate and a collection of related correspondence. The event features prominently in discussion of the period by database researchers.
27. C.W. Bachman and M. Daya, "The Role Concept in Data Models," Proc. 3rd Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases, VLDB Endowment, 1977, pp. 464–476.
28. An incomplete draft of "On the Basic Similarity of Three Major Data Models" is in the Bachman collection at CBI. It does not appear to have been published.
29. C.W. Bachman, "Summary of Current Work: ANSI/X3/SPARC/Study Group - Database Systems, revised January 29," Charles W. Bachman Papers, CBI 125, Charles Babbage Inst., 1 May 1974.
30. C.W. Bachman, "Memo Subject: ANSI/X3/SPARC/Sudy Gorup − Database Systems Status Report," Charles W. Bachman Papers, CBI 125, Charles Babbage Inst., 24 Sept. 1974.
31. CWB TH OH, p. 129.
32. D. Tsichritzis, and A.C. Klug, "The ANSI/X3/SPARC DBMS Framework Report of the Study Group on Database Management Systems," Information Systems, vol. 3, no. 3, 1978, pp. 173–191.
33. CWB TH OH, p. 114.
34. ISO/TC97/SC16, "Provisional Model of Open-Systems Architecture," Charles W. Bachman Papers, CBI 125, Charles Babbage Inst., c. 1 May 1978. Similar five- and six-layer models appear in the group's internal materials for 1977.
35. H. Zimmerman, "OSI Reference Model—The ISO Model of Architecture for Open Systems Interconnection," IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 28, no. 4, 1980, pp. 425–432.
36. C.W. Bachman to R.A. Douglas 12 Feb. 1979, Charles W. Bachman Papers, CBI 125, Charles Babbage Inst.
37. CWB TH OH, p. 135.
38. , The partnership data model is described in US patent 4631664, in several documents included in the Bachman collection at CBI, and along with other aspects of Bachman's career in C.W. Bachman "A Personal Chronicle: Creating Better Information Systems, with Some Guiding Principles," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 1, no. 1, 1989, pp. 17–32.
39. CWB TH OH, p. 162
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