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Issue No.03 - July-September (2011 vol.33)
pp: 22-31
Lars Heide , Copenhagen Business School
ABSTRACT
<p>Industrial production of office machines emerged in the 1880s and grew extensively until the Second World War. Although sales and applications of punched-card machines expanded in the interwar years, the key-set office machine industry lost dynamics and ultimately collapsed. The lack of scale and scope improvements in the development of key-set office machines was the major reason for this sharp contrast.</p>
INDEX TERMS
history of computing, key-set office machines, typewriters, adding machines, multiplication machines, cash registers, punched-card machines, industrial competition, Burroughs, Felt &#x0026; Tarrant, Remington, National Cash Register Company, Herman Hollerith, IBM, Remington Rand
CITATION
Lars Heide, "Scale and Scope in American Key-Set Office Machine Dynamics, 1880s–1930s", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.33, no. 3, pp. 22-31, July-September 2011, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2010.43
REFERENCES
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41. Allyn, My Half Century, pp. 54–55.
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43. Abele, "The Burroughs Story," pp. 7.10–7.18, 8.11.
44. Marketed as NCR Class 3000. Abele, "The Burroughs Story," p. 7.41.
45. Engler, "The Typewriter Industry," p. 129.
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48. Abele, "The Burroughs Story," pp. 8.22, 8.28.
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50. Cortada, Before the Computer, p. 34.
51. Undated balance sheet in folder 9, box 10, Hollerith Papers, Library of Congress.
52. Cortada, Before the Computer, pp. 34–35.
53. Figure data from the following sources. Burroughs: Annual Reports, 1923–1969, CBI, collection 90, box 1, folders 1–18. IBM: figures in folder 7, box 10, Hollerith Papers, Library of Congress, and E.W. Pugh, Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and Its Technology, MIT Press, 1995, p. 23. NCR: Cortada, Before the Computer, p. 180. The Remington Rand figures cover the year ending the next March. For 1927/1928 and 1933/1934, Remington Rand, Directors Meeting, 23 Mar. 1937, Hagley Museum and Library, vol. 5, box 15, Accession 1910. For 1934/1935 and 1936, Remington Rand, "Annual Report for the Year Ending March… 1936–1941," Hagley Museum and Library, vols. 5–6, box 15, vol. 7, box 16, Accession 1910.
54. L. Heide, "Facilitating and Restricting a Challenger: Patents and Standards in the Development of the Bull-Knutsen Punched Card System, 1919–1938," Business History, vol. 51, no. 1, 2009, p. 36.
55. Cortada, Before the Computer, p. 203.
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