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External Characteristics of Computer Operations: Toward Large Conversational Time-Sharing Systems
July-September 2010 (vol. 32 no. 3)
pp. 4-19
Hans Rüdiger Wiehle, University of the Armed Forces Munich , Ottobrunn

In an historical overview of computer operations in scientific-technical environments from the second half of the 1950s to the mid-1960s, this article discusses the ways German universities and similar institutions initially used small computers. It reports on the emergence of high-level programming languages, the appearance and predominance of large batch-processing systems, and the arising efforts to reestablish a conversational mode of operations.

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Index Terms:
history of computing, software engineering, software management, programming languages, operating systems, user-computer interaction, computer industry
Citation:
Hans Rüdiger Wiehle, "External Characteristics of Computer Operations: Toward Large Conversational Time-Sharing Systems," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 4-19, July-Sept. 2010, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2009.56
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