This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Computers and the Thai Language
January/March 2009 (vol. 31 no. 1)
pp. 46-61
Hugh Thaweesak Koanantakool, National Science and Technology Development Agency
Theppitak Karoonboonyanan, Thai Linux Working Group
Chai Wutiwiwatchai, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center

This article explains the history of Thai language development for computers, examining such factors as the language, script, and writing system, among others. The article also analyzes characteristics of Thai characters and I/O methods, and addresses key issues involved in Thai text processing. Finally, the article reports on language processing research and provides detailed information on Thai language resources.

Keywords: Thai language, syntax, Thai input method, Thai output method, Thai string collation, Thai cultural conventions, Thai natural language processing, Thai speech processing, search technology

1. P. Soonthornpoct, From Freedom to Hell: A History of Foreign Interventions in Cambodian Politics and Wars, Vantage Press, 2006.
2. M. Winship, "The Printing Press as an Agent of Change? Early missionary printing in Thailand"; cp/vol-08/no-02tales/.
3. NECTECNational Font Committee, The Time Line of Thai Printing, Thai National Font Book (in Thai), National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), Bangkok, 2001.
4. Antique Phonograph and Gramophone Thai Society, "The Origins of Thai Typewriter"; http://www.talkingmachine.orgsmithpremierorigin.html .
5. K. Hensch, "IBM History of Far Eastern Languages in Computing, Part 1: Requirements and Initial Phonetic Product Solutions in the 1960s," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 27, no. 1, 2005, pp. 17-26.
6. T. Koanantakool, "Compilation of all Thai Character Codes for Computers," Microcomputer Magazine, vol. 1, no. 9, Aug. 1984.
7. National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Thai Information Technology Standards; http://www.nectec.or.thit-standards/.
8. T. Koanantakool and the Thai API Consortium, Computer Gub Pasa Thai [Computers and the Thai Language], NECTEC, Oct. 1991 (in Thai).
9. The WTT specification was published in the book Computers and the Thai Language in 1991. WTT, a project code name, is a Thai acronym of "Wing Took Thee," meaning "I run everywhere."
10. T. Koanantakool, "The Keyboard Layouts and Input Method of the Thai Language," Proc. Symp. Natural Language Processing, Chulalongkorn Univ., 1993.
11. S. Pattajoti, The Evolution of the Typewriter, National Research Council, The Office of the Prime Minister, 4 Nov. 1966 (in Thai).
12. T. Tantsetthi, "Thai Software Alert #1: Legitimate Thai Charset on the Internet"; http:// index.html.
13. P. Suriyawong, Y. Poovarawan, and C. Wongchaisuwat, "A Development of Thai Kernel System," Proc. Regional Workshop on Computer Processing of Asian Languages (CPAL), 26-28 Sept. 1989.
14. T. Koanantakool, "A Brief History of ICT in Thailand"; 07Feb2007_data00.php.
15. Microsoft, "Thai OpenType Specification: Creating and Supporting OpenType fonts for the Thai Script"; typography/otfntdev/ thaiotdefault.htm.
16. T. Karoonboonyanan, "Thai Locale";
17. D. Londe and U. Warotamasikkhadit, "Computerized Alphabetization of Thai, tech. memo TM-BA-1000/000/01, System Development Corp., 1969.
18. V. Lorchirachoonkul, Thai Sorting Algorithm, Thai Algorithm: Design, Analysis and Implementation, tech. report, NIDA and Electrical Generation Authority of Thailand, Bangkok, 1979.
19. S. Khamthaidee, "Thai Style Algorithm: Sorting Thai," Computer Rev., vol. 91, Mar. 1992.
20. T. Karoonboonyanan, "Thai Sorting Algorithms";
21. T. Karoonboonyanan, S. Raruenrom, and P. Boonma, "Thai-English Bilingual Sorting"; .
22. T. Karoonboonyanan, S. Raruenrom, and P. Boonma, "Sorting Thai Words with Punctuation Marks," NECTECJ., vol. 14, Jan.–Feb. 1997, NECTEC, 1997.
23. A. LaBonté ed., ISO/IEC DIS 14651: International String Ordering and Comparison—Method for Comparing Character Strings and Description of the Common Template Tailorable Ordering, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG20 N731, 2000.
24. K. Karlsson, Ordering Rules for Thai and Lao, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG20 N1077, 2003.
25. Y. Thairatananond, "Towards the Design of a Thai Text Syllable Analyzer," master's thesis, Asian Inst. of Technology, Pathumthani, 1981.
26. S. Charnyapornpong, "A Thai Syllable Separation Algorithm," master's thesis, Asian Inst. of Technology, Pathumthani, 1983.
27. R. Varakulsiripunth et al., "Word Segmentation in Thai Sentence by Longest Word Mapping," Papers on Natural Language Processing: Multilingual Machine Translation and Related Topics (1987–1994), NECTEC, 1989.
28. S. Meknavin, P. Charoenpornsawat, and B. Kijsirikul, "Feature-Based Thai Word Segmentation," Proc. Natural Language Processing Pacific Rim Symp. (NLPRS 97), 1997, pp. 41-48.
29. W. Aroonmanakun, "Collocation and Thai Word Segmentation," Proc. Joint Int'l Conf. Symp. Natural Language Processing (SNLP) and Oriental Chapter of the Int'l Committee for the Coordination and Standardization of Speech Databases and Assessment Techniques (O-COCOSDA), 2002, pp. 68-75.
30. V. Lorchirachoonkul, "A Thai Soundex System," Information Processing and Management, vol. 18, no. 5, 1982, pp. 243-255.
31. K. Tingsabadh and A.S. Abramson, Illustrations of the IPA: Thai, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999.
32. J.C. Wells, "SAMPA for Thai"; .
33. P. Tarsaku, V. Sornlertlamvanich, and R. Thongprasirt, "Thai Grapheme-to-Phoneme Using Probabilistic GLR Parser," Proc. European Conf. Speech Communication and Technology (EuroSpeech), ISCA, 2001, pp. 1057-1060.
34. P. Hiranvanichakorn, T. Agui, and M. Nkajima, "A Recognition of Thai Characters," Trans. IECE Japan, vol. E 54, no. 12, 1982.
35. C. Kimpan et al., "Thai Character Pattern Recognition Preliminary," Proc. Conf. L-05, College of Science and Technology, Nihon Univ., 1980.
36. NECTEC, "Open TLE"; http:/
37. V. Tanrudee, "Thai Character Handwriting Recognition System," master's thesis, Chulalongkorn Univ., 1989.
38. G Softbiz Co., Ltd., "Thai-G"; http:/
39. S. Luksaneeyanawin, "A Thai Text-to-Speech System," Proc. Regional Workshop Computer Processing of Asian Languages (CPAL), 1989, pp. 305-315.
40. P. Mittrapiyanurak et al., "Issues in Thai Text-to-Speech Synthesis: The NECTECApproach," Proc. NECTECAnn. Conf., NECTEC, 2000, pp. 483-495.
41. IBM, "IBM Launches IBM Home Page Reader V3.02 Thai, A Thai-speaking Web Browser—The 12th Language of the World," press release, 12 Feb. 2003.
42. Thailand Association of the Blind, "Software for the Blind";
43. T. Pathumthan, "Thai Speech Recognition Using Syllable Units," master's thesis, Chulalongkorn Univ., 1987 (in Thai).
44. S. Kasuriya et al., "Thai Speech Corpus for Speech Recognition," Proc. Int'l Conf. Int'l Committee for the Coordination and Standardization of Speech Databases and Assessments (O-COCOSDA), 2003, pp. 105-111.
45. S. Suebvisai et al., "Thai Automatic Speech Recognition," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), IEEE Press, 2005, pp. 857-860.
46. I. Thienlikit, C. Wutiwiwatchai, and S. Furui, "Language Model Construction for Thai LVCSR," Reports of the Meeting of the Acoustic Soc. of Japan, ASJ, 2004, pp. 131-132.
47. P. Mitrapiyanuruk et al., "A Development of Full-Text Search Engine for Large Scale Thai Text Database," Proc. Nat'l Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), annual meeting, 1999, pp. 246-257 (in Thai).
48. Science and Technology Knowledge Service(STKS), "Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (Thai translation)"; http:/
49. V. Wuwongse et al., "XML Declarative Description: A Language for the Semantic Web," IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 16, no. 3, 2001, pp. 54-65.
50. NECTEC, "LEXiTRON Online Dictionary"; http:/
51. V. Sornlertlamvanich, T. Charoenporn, and H. Isahara, ORCHID: Thai part-of-speech tagged corpus, tech. report TR-NECTEC-1997-001, ISBN 9747576-98-8, NECTEC, 1997.

Hugh Thaweesak Koanantakool, Theppitak Karoonboonyanan, Chai Wutiwiwatchai, "Computers and the Thai Language," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 46-61, Jan.-March 2009, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2009.5
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.