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Biographies
April-June 2008 (vol. 30 no. 2)
pp. 74-81
Jack Dongarra, Supercomputing Expert and Mathematical Software Specialist
Thomas Haigh, University of Wisconsin
Jack Dongarra, a leader of the high-performance computing community, is cocreator of mathematical software packages including EISPACK, LINPACK, LAPACK, and ScaLAPACK. He is also a University Distinguished Professor at the University of Tennessee.

1. J.J. Dongarra oral history interview by T. Haigh, 26 Apr. 2004, Soc. for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia; available from http://history.siam.org/oralhistoriesdongarra.htm . Otherwise unattributed material throughout this biography is taken from this source.
2. The history of scientific computing at Argonne is discussed in C.N. Yood, Argonne National Laboratory and the Emergence of Computer and Computational Science, 1946–1992, history, Pennsylvania State Univ., 2005, cover Eispackand Pool's leadership of mathematical software work at Argonne during this period.
3. The Eispackproject is discussed in C.B. Moler and J.J. Dongarra, "Eispack—A Package for Solving Matrix Eigenvalue Problems," Sources and Development of Mathematical Software, W.R. Cowell ed. Prentice Hall, 1984, pp. 68-87, See also T. Haigh, "Biography of Cleve Moler," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 30, no. 1, 2008, pp. 87-91.
4. See W.J. Cody, "Observations on the Mathematical Software Effort," Sources and Development of Mathematical Software, W.R. Cowell ed. Prentice Hall, 1984, pp. 1-19.
5. The influence of atomic weapons labs on the evolution of supercomputer architecture and the challenge sposed by the array processing architecture of the unsuccessful CDC STAR-100 machine of the 1960s are discussed in D. Mackenzie, "The Influence of Los Alamos and Livermore National Laboratories on the Development of Supercomputing," Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 13, no. 2, 1991, pp. 179-291, Cray's interaction with its customers is explored in B. Elzen and D. MacKenzie, "The Social Limits of Speed: The Development and Use of Supercomputers," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 16, no. 1, 1994, pp. 46-61.
6. Dongarra dissertation findings were published as J.J. Dongarra, C.B. Moler, and J.H. Wilkinson, "Improving the Accuracy of Computed Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors," SIAM J. Numerical Analysis, vol. 20, no. 1, 1983, pp. 23-45.
7. C. Moler oral history interview by T. Haigh, 8–9 Mar., 2004, Santa Barbara, Calif., Soc. for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia; available from http://history.siam.org/oralhistoriesmoler.htm , p. 61.
8. J.J. Dongarra and G.W. Stewart, "Linpack—A Package for Solving Linear Systems," Sources and Development of Mathematical Software, W.R. Cowell ed. Prentice Hall, 1984, pp. 20-48.
9. G.W.P. Stewart oral history interview by T. Haigh, 5–, 6 Mar. 2006, Soc. for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia (publication forthcoming).
10. J.J. Dongarra oral history interview, p. 23.
11. J. Pool oral history interview with T. Haigh, 14 July 2004, Soc. for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, (publication forthcoming).
12. Lawson discussed the BLAS and his role in its development in C.L. Lawson, oral history interview with T. Haigh, 6–7 Nov. 2004, Soc. for Industrial and Applied Mathematics; available from http://history.siam.org/oralhistorieslawson.htm and in C.L. Lawson, "Background, Motivation and a Retrospective View of the BLAS," Proc. Ninth SIAM Conf. Parallel Processing for Scientific Computing (CD-ROM), Soc. for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1999.
13. Pool believes this agreement was reached during a SIAM meeting in Madison in May 1978, though Lawson remembers contact with Argonne participants several years earlier.
14. See J.J. Dongarra, "The LinpackBenchmark: An Explanation," Evaluating Supercomputers: Strategies for Exploiting, Evaluating and Benchmarking Computers with Advanced Architectures, Chapman &Hill, 1990, pp. 1-21.
15. The origins of Netlib are documented in J.J. Dongarra and E. Grosse, "Distribution of Mathematical Software by Electronic Mail," Comm. ACM, vol. 30, no. 5, 1987, pp. 403-407.
16. J.J. Dongarra oral history interview, p. 37.
17. From the Pentium onward, Intel's mainstream processors have included superscalar designs with multiple pipelines. As pipeline length increased (with the Pentium II, Pentium III, and Pentium IV chips), the issues of latency and branch prediction faced by chip designers and compiler creators mirrored those faced by the Cray programmers of the 1970s. Meanwhile, new instructions introduced with 1996's Pentium MMX and expanded with each subsequent chip generation provided the single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) instructions pioneered by vector processing machines like the Cray X-MP. Though conceived as special-purpose multimedia enhancements, these instructions are now used by mathematical libraries. Efforts to harness the powerful SIMD capabilities of modern video game hardware for general-purpose numerical calculations have attracted great attention recently.
18. J.J. Dongarra oral history interview, p. 54. On the higher levels of BLAS, see J.J. Dongarra et al., "A Set of Level 3 Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms," ACM Trans. Mathematical Software, vol. 16, no. 1, 1990, pp. 1-17. Their relationship to Lapackand Dongarra is discussed in I.S. Duff, oral history by T. Haigh, 30–31 Aug. 2005, Soc. for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia; available from http://history.siam.org/oralhistoriesduff.htm .
19. J.J. Dongarra oral history interview, p. 34.
20. B. Ford, S. Hammarling, and S. Hague oral history interview by T. Haigh, 29–, 30 June 2004, Soc. for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia (publication forthcoming).
21. J.J. Dongarra oral history interview, p. 51.
22. Ibid., p. 67.
23. Ibid., p. 57.
24. Ibid., p. 54.
25. R.C. Whaley, A. Petitet, and J.J. Dongarra, "Automated Empirical Optimization of Software and the ATLAS Project," Parallel Computing, vol. 27, no. 1-2, 2001, pp. 3-35.
26. J.J. Dongarra oral history interview, p. 78.
27. J.J. Dongarra personal communication, 26 Feb. 2007.

Index Terms:
Jack Dongarra; EISPACK; LINPACK; LAPACK; ScaLAPACK; supercomputing
Citation:
Jack Dongarra , Thomas Haigh, "Biographies," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 74-81, April-June 2008, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2008.17
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