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Issue No.03 - July-September (2007 vol.29)
pp: 6-19
Martin Campbell-Kelly , University of Warwick
ABSTRACT
The first personal-computer spreadsheet, VisiCalc, was launched in May 1979. During the next decade, the spreadsheet evolved from a simple calculating aid to an indispensable tool of modern business, employed by tens of millions of users who had little or no direct computer experience. This article describes the development of spreadsheet usability from VisiCalc through Lotus 1-2-3 to Microsoft Excel.
INDEX TERMS
spreadsheets, usability
CITATION
Martin Campbell-Kelly, "Number Crunching without Programming: The Evolution of Spreadsheet Usability", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.29, no. 3, pp. 6-19, July-September 2007, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2007.43
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8. , Unless otherwise stated, the following discussion of VisiCalc is based on my interview with Bricklin and Frankston (see Ref. 6).
9. Ibid., p. 13.
10. R.P. Rumelt, VisiCorp 1978–1984 (Revised), Graduate School of Management, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 2003, p. 2.
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19. , Aimed at users, consultants, and add-on makers (see later), Lotus magazine is a superb historical source for the development of the spreadsheet industry.
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24. P. Funk interview by M. Campbell-Kelly, 12 May 2003.
25. K.H. Hammonds, "The Little Software Maker that Lotus Loves," Business Week,7 Nov. 1988, p. 168.
26. J. Kinlan and S. Tucker interview by M. Campbell-Kelly, 12 May 2003.
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36. For comprehensive histories of Multiplan D. Ichbiah and S.L. Knepper, The Making of Microsoft, Prima Publishing, 1991, pp. 98–119, 197–210.
37. 1–2–3 was eventually released for the Macintosh in 1990.
38. Ichbiah and Knepper, Making of Microsoft, p. 169.
39. Ibid., p. 205.
40. Microsoft Corp., "Soul of the New Machines," VHS Video, 1987.
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43. Ibid., p. 42.
44. Liebowitz and Margolis, Winners, Losers &Microsoft, p. 175.
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47. Campbell-Kelly, From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog, pp. 258–259.
48. Liebowitz and Margolis, Winners, Losers &Microsoft, p. 176.
49. "OpenOffice.org," Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wikiOpenoffice#Market_share .
50. J. Markoff, "Google Takes Aim at Excel," New York Times,6 June 2006.
51. M. Campbell-Kelly and D.D. Garcia-Swartz, "The Rise, Fall and Resurrection of Software-as-a-Service: Historical Perspectives on the Computer Utility and Software for Lease on a Network," The Internet and American Business, W. Aspray, and P. Ceruzzi eds. MIT Press, forthcoming.
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