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Issue No.02 - April-June (2007 vol.29)
pp: 80-86
Peter Eckstein , University of Michigan
ABSTRACT
Peter Eckstein recounts major biographical events, background influences, education, professional experience, and achievements in the life of Control Data Corp.'s founder William C. Norris.
INDEX TERMS
biography, CDC, Control Data Corp., Engineering Research Associates, William C. Norris
CITATION
Peter Eckstein, "William Charles ('Bill') Norris", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.29, no. 2, pp. 80-86, April-June 2007, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2007.31
REFERENCES
1. Willa Norris interview by P. Eckstein, 24 Jan. 1992, East Lansing, Mich., author's personal collection.
2. William (Wm.) Norris interview by P. Eckstein, 17 Apr. 1992, Bloomington, Minn., author's personal collection.
3. Wm. Norris interview by P. Eckstein, 7 Oct. 1987, Ann Arbor, Mich., author's personal collection.
4. Wm. Norris interview by Carol Pine, Jan. 1982, CBI OH 270, Charles Babbage Inst., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 42 pp.
5. C. Pine and S. Mundale, Self-made: The Stories of 12 Minnesota Entrepreneurs, Dorn Books, 1982, p. 104.
6. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris: Portrait of a Maverick, Ballinger, 1987, p. 16.
7. W. Norris, "Business Can Profit by Filling 'Unmet Social Needs,'," U.S. News and World Report,21 Sept. 1981, p. 74, C. Pine, and S. Mundale, Self-made,21 Sept. 1981, p. 102.
8. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, pp. 16–17.
9. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, p. 18.
10. G. Johansen, "Control Data's William C. Norris: From Farm Boy to Computer Giant," Magazine of the Midlands, supplement to The Omaha World-Herald 9 Aug. 1981.
11. Wm. Norris oral history interview by A.L. Norberg, 28 July 1986 and 1 Oct. 1986, CBI OH 116, Charles Babbage Inst., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, p. 3.
12. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, pp. 19–21, Wm. Norris, CBI OH 116, pp. 4–8; C. Pine and S. Mundale, Self-made, pp. 104–105.
13. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, p. 21.
14. Ibid., pp. 21–22.
15. Wm. Norris, CBI OH 116, p. 6.
16. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, The definitive article on ERA is E. Tomash and A.A. Cohen, "The Birth of an ERA: Engineering Research Associates, Inc., 1946–1955, Annals of the History of Computing vol. 1, no. 2, 1979, pp. 83–97.
17. W.D. Gardner, "CDC's Scrappy Chairman," Datamation, Feb. 1981, pp. 32–36.
18. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, p. 28.
19. C. Pine and S. Mundale, Self Made, p. 108.
20. "Small, Smart, Sharp," Business Week,25 May 1963, pp. 156–158.
21. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, p. 29.
22. W.D. Gardner, "CDC's Scrappy Chairman," p. 34.
23. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, p. 35, 38.
24. Ibid., pp. 39–40; T.A. Wise, "Control Data's Magnificent Fumble," Fortune, April 1966, p. 260.
25. "Small, Smart, Sharp," p. 156.
26. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, D. Seligman, "The Norris Enigma," Fortune, 23 Jan. 1984, p. 191; D.W. Larson, Land of the Giants: A History of Minnesota Business, Dorn Books 1979, pp. 160–161.
27. M. Cox, "The Computer Comes to the Small Farm," Country Journal, Aug. 1981, pp. 32–36.
28. R. Nader and W. Taylor, The Big Boys: Power and Position in American Business, Pantheon, 1986, p. 478.
29. "Small, Smart, Sharp," p. 166.
30. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, p. 169.
31. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, p. 7.
32. W.D. Gardner, "CDC's Scrappy Chairman," p. 32.
33. Ibid., p. 36.
34. K. Gullo, "The Long View," Datamation,1 July 1986, p. 92.
35. R. Nader and W. Taylor, The Big Boys, p. 457, J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, p. 8.
36. R. Nader and W. Taylor, The Big Boys, p. 458.
37. G. Harrar, "An Interview: William C. Norris, Control Data's Maverick Chairman," Computerworld,12 Sept. 1983.
38. M. Cox, "The Computer Comes to the Small Farm," p. 32.
39. Wm. Norris interview by Carol Pine, Jan. 1982, CBI OH 270, pp. 19–20.
40. L. Ingrassia, "Far-Out Firm: Seeking to Aid Society, Control Data Takes On Many Novel Ventures," The Wall Street Journal,22 Dec. 1982, p. 10.
41. D. Seligman, "The Norris Enigma," p. 192.
42. K.D. Fishman, The Computer Establishment, McGraw-Hill, 1982, pp. 204–205.
43. Time, "Personalities,"1 Nov. 1963, p. 100.
44. W.D. Gardner, "CDC's Scrappy Chairman," p. 36.
45. K. Gullo, "The Long View," p. 91.
46. Wm. Norris CBI OH 270, p. 35.
47. L. Ingrassia, "Far-Out Firm," p. 1.
48. R. Nader and W. Taylor, The Big Boys, p. 459.
49. Norris interview with Jeannye Thornton of US News & World Report, Minneapolis, 14 May 1984, CBI, p. 3.
50. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, pp. 157–159, R. Nader, and W. Taylor, The Big Boys, p. 453.
51. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, pp. 87–88.
52. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, J. Dubashi, "The Do-Gooder," Financial World,27 June 1989, p. 70.
53. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, p. 56.
54. R. Nader and W. Taylor, The Big Boys, p. 459, 487.
55. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, p. 10.
56. J. Fucini and S. Fucini, "William C. Norris (1911–): Control Data Corporation," Experience, Inc.: Men and Women who Founded Famous Companies after the Age of 40, The Free Press, 1987, p. 118.
57. J.C. Worthy, William C. Norris, pp. 12–14.
58. E.J. Savitz, "The Vision Thing: Control Data Abandons It for the Bottom Line," Barron's,1 May 1990, pp. 22–24.
59. L.M. Fisher, "Control Data to Separate Into Two Companies," The New York Times,28 May 1992, p. C5.
60. D. Peters, "Ever-Active Norris Pursues Ideas, Pet Projects," St. Paul Pioneer Press Dispatch,16 Mar. 1987, p. 1.
61. "William C. Norris: Stands by his Social Agenda for the Future," Electronic Business,11 Dec. 1989, pp. 120–121.
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